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The omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced for the context.


Repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect.


A word or phrase used positively or negatively that characterizes or describes a person or thing, added to or replacing a name.


The substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.

Figure of Speech

A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Examples are apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonomy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.


A device in the narrative of a motion picture, novel, etc., by which an event or scene taking place before the present time in the narrative is inserted into the chronological structure of the work.


The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.


A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor.


An expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up.


The use of language to evoke a picture or a concrete sensation of a person, thing, place, or experience.


An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

Dramatic Irony

Occurs when when a reader is aware of something that a character isn't.

Situational Irony

A type of irony in which an outcome occurs that turns out to be very different from what was expected; the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does.

Verbal Irony

In this type of irony, the words literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning.


Specialized technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject.


The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development.


A type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite.


A figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity.

Mixed Metaphor

A combination of two or more metaphors that together produce a ridiculous effect.

Extended Metaphor

The comparison between two things is continued beyond the first point of comparison. This extends and deepens a description.


A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it.


Atmosphere; feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage.


A unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary work.


Using words that imitate the sound they denote.


A figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms.

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