Upgrade to remove ads
Imagining the Dutch
Terms in this set (68)
Imagined Community (related to nationalism; Anderson 1983)
a community in which not everyone knows each other but everyone still feels they are part of a larger whole. influences how we see our history and that of others.
Cliché Dutch history
quiet and peaceful, the country as small but brave, politics are gradual and tolerant
Cheese and Herring: The Netherlands in the Late Middle Ages Lecture Theme
trade, Antwerp to Amsterdam, grain, lumber, cheese, and herring
The Making of the Dutch Golden Age Lecture Theme
nationalism, art for the people
Religious Tolerance Lecture Theme
not as tolerant as originally thought, freedom of conscience vs. freedom of religion
The Netherlands as a Maritime Nation Lecture Theme
trade, whaling, development of the fluitschip
King, Queen, and Nation Lecture Theme
the 19th century, pretending they had been a monarchy for a long time, paintings
Dutch Colonialism Lecture Theme
paintings, the two pieces that were done by different artists of the west indies compared, court cases for repenting
Pillarization Lecture Theme
All of life fit into these pillars, there were 4 pillars (catholic, protestant, socialist, liberal)
The Netherlands in WWII Lecture Theme
the Dutch stood up to the Germans and held protests, very high rate of deportation, monuments around the Netherlands
Democracy in the Netherlands Lecture Theme
the politics of accommodation and the Netherlands as a successful democracy
The Sixties Lecture Theme
Provos, white bike movement, depillarization
New to Holland Lecture Theme
labor immigrants, demographics, where people have settled, racism/prejudice in the Netherlands
Phases of WWII
1: gain sympathy and economic exploitation
2: increasing oppression of the population and persecution of Jews; enforced organizational and ideological conformity of societies
3: increasing exploitation and growing resistance
4: 'front', 'Dutch famine', and 'total upheaval'
2: Change of mood. Reprisals. Deportation of the Jews.
3: Forced Labor. Rise of the Resistance movement. D-Day.
4: South is liberated. Hunger winter in the West.
The germans had 2 key objectives: which was successful?
win over the Dutch to National Socialism and make the Dutch economy subservient to the German war effort: economic subservience was successful
What was the deportation rate of Dutch Jews during WWII?
107.000 of 140.000 Jews
Main Causes of High Deportation (griffoen and zeller) - explain these more
-civilian german administration
-attitude of dutch officials (keep things running)
-gradual persecution, starting administratively
-role of Dutch police
-bad luck in the time factor
What are the Provos?
Provo is a left wing student protest group in the Netherlands. Against the boredom of pillarized society, against consumption society, sexual freedom, freedom of assembly, against air pollution. Utilized visual media to get across their ideas. White bicycle plan, Wedding of Beatrix an Clause
With the cultural, social, and economic changes in the 60s, did the Provos movement (1965-1967) have any effect on these changes in the Netherlands?
No, not truly. They did make some cultural changes, and some of their ideas still circulate and are seen in the Netherlands today, but overall they didn't make last changes. Political leaders were agents of change.
How did lijphart define pillarization differently from kruijt? Name 3 parts of pillarized life.
Kruijt's definition is narrow - pillarization is the organizational infrastructure of Dutch society based on a particular philosophy of life, only Catholic an orthodox-protestants are real pillars; lijphart's is flexible - pillarization is the orgaization of the entire Dutch society into different blocks based on religious and social cleavages (politics of accommodation). Newspapers, schools, political parties, social clubs, etc.
What was the cultivation system and what was the impact on the Indies and in the Netherlands?
20% of the village land on Java had to be used for government crops. In the NL, this paid for canals and railways and the end of slavery in Surinam in 1863. In the Indies, this led to harsher standards and some bad policy. Also led to some famine and epidemics (cash crops grown instead of rice). 'Max Havelaar' - book that criticized the Cultivation System and eventually led to the Ethical Policy
What happened in 1848? Explain.
The Netherlands became a constitutional monarchy. William II is the first king. The king was not governing, but provided a sense of symbolic unity. Outburst of nationalism. Separation of church and state.
What made the fluitschip superior to the cog ship in Baltic trade?
smaller deck size for lower taxes, but could carry lots of cargo.
What has been the stereotype of Dutch religious tolerance? Provide one example that proves and two examples that disprove this stereotype.
That the Dutch are tolerant and welcoming of all religions openly. The "freedom of conscience" vs. "freedom of religion" disproves, censorship carried out by the Calvinists. The idea that tolerance could prevent worse, and that people did build churches and carry out services in all kinds of churches proves this.
What were the key aspects of the Revolt? (causes and consequences)
causes: increased taxes, problem of religion and iconoclasm, and senior nobles had little access to Philip II and wanted more power.
consequences: Dutch Golden Age, several waves of nationalism, and national museums created
Explain for one of these factors (wages, agriculture developments, and proto-industrialization) what role it played in making the Dutch economy.
Agricultural developments allowed for more arable land for crops that contributed to the production of beer in the cities and the production of cheese. They could more easily raise animals and grow a variety of crops.
Name at least three important Dutch industries or bulk goods from this period.
cheese, herring, beer, and lumber
What has been the traditional stereotype of Dutch religious tolerance? Provide one example that proves this stereotype and two that disprove it.
Traditional stereotype: many different religions in the Netherlands and that each religion could practice without any trouble.
Prove: People were allowed to believe in different religions since the government did not intervene. Also, multiple churches existed within the city.
Disprove: Freedom of conscious vs. freedom of religion (thinkers who questioned religion were not accepted). Protestants have been dominate throughout history. There was one public church (fundamentalist).
Essential developments ca. 1000-1300
Substantial population increase, emergence and development of towns and cities, agricultural expansion
Causes of demographic decline in 14th century
Black death and echo epidemics, faminines, war and revolt
Three Venice(s) of the North
Bruges - foreign merchants and Italian bankers
Amsterdam - trade, ship building, fishing
How was the proto-industrial situation created? (agriculture supplemented by labor in urban sectors; increasing involvement of agrarian families in market-oriented craft production)
-Farmers own their own land -> no flight from the countryside at the advent of the Black Death
-Typical industries in Holland are capital intensive: early high wages ->investment in labor saving technologies
-Specific capital intensive production processes were concentrated in the cities (i.e. Wool and linen industries and breweries)
-crisis of arable farming linked to the strong development of rural industries and other non-agricultural activities in the countryside
What is the Golden Age?
A period of economic growth and prosperity in the 17th century, including cultural and scientific success
Revolt (When, why, who, etc.)
-Netherlands developed because of the Revolt
-Broke out because: Phillip II increased taxes, problem of religion, senior nobles wanted more power
William of Orange
Dutch nobleman who came to be seen as the founding father of the Netherlands; wanted all provinces united; did not necessarily want an independent Netherlands; killed in 1584
Important years in Revolt
1588: Dutch Republic founded
1648: Peace of Munster; Spain recognized the Republic as a sovereign state
The 19th century as 'The Museum Age'
The Netherlands was slow to react; collection of King William II sold in 1850
Independence of Belgium
Seen as hero; Night Watch at end of Gallery of Honor in Rijks, pinnacle of Dutch art and culture in the Golden Age; Rembrandtesque nationalism
Tolerance in Practice
Two strategies: (Benjamin Kaplan)
-We deny the differences and make them invisible
-Ban on public expression
-Clandestine churches (Our Lord in the Attic)
-Example: Catholics in the Republic
-All parties are visible but are separated by:
-Example: Jews in the Dutch Republic
-Developed in 1595
-Limited number of crew needed, fast, and stable
-Mainly used to transport cargo
Leading position of Dutch Republic in European shipping in 17th century caused by:
- Advantageous geography
-Development of Fluitschip
-Low construction costs
Stockholding Trading Companies
1602: Dutch East India Company (VOC)
1614: Noordsche Compagnie (whaling)
1621: Dutch West India Company (WIC)
-Monopoly from States General
-Commodities from Europe to Asia: gold, silver, cloth, wine
-Commodities from Asia: pepper, spices, tea, porcelain, textiles
-Downfall caused by: overwhelming competition, increase of expenses, warfare
-1798: VOC goes bankrupt
17th century enemy
Shift in image and identity of national enemy (Spain to England) continuation of worldwide warfare (conflict especially in relation to shipping)
-Dutch Republic (1581-1795)
-Batavian Republic (1795-1806)
-French Period (1806-1813)
-Kingdom of the United Netherlands (1813-1830)
-Kingdom of the Netherlands (1830-present)
-The Netherlands becomes a constitutional monarchy: end of absolute power of the king (1848)
-Abolition of slavery (1863)
Monarchy and Nationalism
-Netherlands invented rituals of the monarchy to legitimize it as the proper rule for the nation (Golden Carriage; based off Carriage of Charles X of France)
-Monarchy provided an idea of unity; umbrella for the provinces and different 'pillars', especially in the later 19th century (19th century is age of nationalism)
-Always included references to the past (i.e. Rembrandt)
-Not linear, but in outbursts (1813: King's Landing, 1830: Secession of Belgium, 1848: Constitutional Monarchy, 1898: Inauguration of Wilhelmina)
King William I
-Painting showed William as he wanted to be shown
-Importance of legs and depiction of body
-Monarchy is theatre or 'invented'
Ethical Policy (civilizing mission)
-Queen Wilhelmina states that the Netherlands accepts an ethical responsibility for the welfare of their colonial subjects
-Contrast to former doctrine that Indonesia was a region for making profit
-Eventually became police state
War of Independence
-Police actions in 1947 and 1949 are later called excesses
-Guerilla war, violence on both sides
How popular was imperialism 'at home'?
-South African War - popular imperialism? Boer community and support.
-Colonial and trade exhibition in Amsterdam in late 19th century
-Figures that represented colonialism were sometimes considered heros
Important Moments and Periods for pillarization
1870s: Political emancipation of the orthodox-protestants and catholics
1945-1960: Heyday of pillarization and the politics of accommodation
1960s: De pillarization
Achieved in 1919
Politics of Accommodation - Lijphart
"The social and ideological fragmentation of the Dutch people has not been an insurmountable obstacle to the development and firm persistence of a stable, effective, and legitimate parliamentary democracy which has served the people well and which has by and large enjoyed their active support."
Characteristics of Dutch/consensus democracy
-Power sharing in broad multiparty coalitions
-Multiparty system, low threshold
-Proportional representation (every vote counts)
-Coordinated interest group cooperation aimed at compromise
Liberal, progressive political group; wanted new electoral system, direct election of prime minister and mayors, and anti-monarchy
Politics and Pillarization and Economy after WWII
-Pillarization restored because it was what people knew best
-Same politics parties, but Labor party ruled for the first time
-Harmonious political climate
-Economy focused on reconstruction - social economic security was the aim
-Economic growth thanks to low wages - low wages later led to strikes
New generation versus old generation
-Influenced by American culture: Rebel without a Cause (1995)
-Claimed sexual freedom
-Wanted to participate in politics
-Secularization and de pillarization
New Left (within the Labor Party)
1946 PvdA (Labor Party) founded; against Vietnam war, against monarchy, against confessional parties
D66 wins; D66 and PvdA did not manage to end the power of the confessional parties and to polarize politics
Labor migrants from the Mediterranean
Knowledge of and familiarity with the Dutch language and culture
Dutch and Indo-European repatriates
Dutch repatriates = 'white' Dutch
Indo-European = group of mixed Dutch-European background, usually with Dutch passport
Repatriation after the independence of Indonesia in 1949
Oil Crisis = End of labor migration
Turks - official immigration
Moroccans - unofficial immigration
Neither group had Dutch cultural capital
Only received passports years later; no efforts at integration because of temporality
Entzinger: While multiculturalism was introduced as a policy to facilitate integration, it has in fact done the reverse (Ethnicization)
You might also like...
Ch 18 Review AP Euro - Marsh
Euro Unit Test 4
Other sets by this creator