Terms in this set (35)
The Aesthetic Approach:
(Masterpiece approach or great man approach) - this approach seeks to evaluate individual movies and/or directors using criteria that assess their artistic significance and influence. This approach includes the other approaches but it is primarily interested in movies that are not only works of art but are also widely acknowledged masterpieces. Example: David A. Cook's, A History of Narrative Film
This theory holds that great movies are the work of a single creative mind. Example: James Naremore's, On Kubrick
The Technological Approach:
Historians that examine the circumstances surrounding the development of each technological advance as well as subsequent improvements. They ask questions like, when was each invention made? under what circumstances? What were the consequences for directors, studios, distributers, audiences?
The Economic Approach:
How and why the studio system was founded, how it adapted to changing conditions, and how and why different studios took different approaches to production different movies, how they were distributed and exhibited, and what effect this had on film history. Also concerned with management, organization, accounting and marketing, the rating system. Lastly, they try to place significant movies within that nation's economy.
Film as Social History Approach:
Society and culture influence the moues and vice cress, movies serve as primary sources for studying society. who made movies and why? who watched them and why? how were movies evaluated by whom and why? social history considers factors as relation, politics, and culture trends and taboos. Overall, the study of the complex interaction between the movies as a social institution, and other social institutions such as government, relation, and labor.
literally means "writing with light" and technically means the static representation or reproduction of light
"dark chamber" - Aristotle theorized this device and then Da Vinci's drawings gave form to the idea. it may be a box or a room, light entering through a tiny hole, on one side of the box or too projects image rom the outside onto the opposite side or wall. artist then traces it on a piece of paper
invented by William Henry Fox Talbot, he invented the negative photographic image on transparent material which makes possible the reproduction of the image.
1802 first attempted to produce photographs but the images faded to quickly
The first to use the word photography in 1839
Began the mass production of paper "film" coated with a gelatin emulsion, created the paper base for photographs
records the phases of an action in a series of still photographs. Three men Pierre Janssen, Eadweard Muybridge, and Etienne-Jules Murey contributed to its development.
1874, Janssen invented a cylindrical shaped camera that creates eposes automatically, at short intervals, on different segments of a revolving plate
Magic Lantern and Zoopraxiscope:
Invented by Muybridge in 1877, used a group of electrically operated cameras (12 then 24) to produce a series of photographs of continuous motion. A version of the magic lantern, with a revolving disc that had his photographs arranged around the center. Example: Horse in motion pictures
Marey 1882 - made the first series of photographs of continuous motion. A single portable camera capable of taking 12 continuous images (his invention was another form of the chronophotographic gun)
the first motion-picture camera invented by William Dickson (working for Edison) and the Kinetoscope: a peephole viewer
Fred Ott's Sneeze:
the first motion picture made with the kinetograph, and the earliest complete film on record.
The Black Maria:
The hot, cramp shack that Edison's staff made the movies in - including Fred Ott's Sneeze. The first movie studio containing cameras, technicians, and actors.
Lumiere brothers a more sophisticated device. Employees leaving the factory (1895). They called their films a actualities.
started to make short narrative movies based on theatrical model of short, sequential scenes shot from a fixed point of view. His editing contained only joint these scenes together - "The cinemas first narrative artist" - he used stop-motion photography - stopping and starting the camera
Edwin S Porter:
1903 working with Edison, established a more sophisticated approach to narrative filmmaking with The Great Train Robbery (12 min long) multiple camera positions, cross cutting - also the first "Western" film of the genre
Classical Hollywood Cinema:
1908-1927 - Classical Hollywood Style - Silent Period: reinforced the traditional studio based style of making motion pictures in both the silent and sound periods - it's fundamental built on the principle of "invisibility" - invisible cinematic language and a vertically integrated studio dominated era.
Alice Guy Blache:
First female director in the early 1900's
1919-1931- Emerged after the chaos of WWI in hopes of creating new image for the country. UFA (Universum-Film AG) had large studios and the best equipment leading to the golden age of cinema from 1919 to 1933. German filmmakers embraced avant-garde. German Expressionist film presents the physical world on the screen as a projection, or expression of the subjective world. Its chief characteristics are distorted and exaggerated settings; unnatural spaces; the use of nonparallel lines; unnatural costumes, makeup and highly stylized acting. Most famous G.E. film Wiene's Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
French Avant-Garde Filmmaking:
1918-1930 - Three difference types: 1) short dadaist and surrealist films of anti-conventional, absurdist nature 2) short naturalistic physiological studies 3) feature-length films that also emphasize pure visual form. A time of art and filmmaking coming together. Example: The Fall of The House of Usher
The Soviet Montage Movement
1924-1930: The Soviet Montage Movement - goes along with the German expressionist film movement as one of the twin high points of cinematic experimentation and realism.
Classical Hollywood Style in Hollywood's Golden Age:
1927-47 - The most powerful age in film history ever. Included the transition from silent to sound the consolidation of the studio system, exploitation of familiar genres, imposition of the Motion Picture Production Code, changes the look of movies, and the economic success of feature-length narrative films - movies became a part of American culture. Screwball comedies, The Academy (1927), the censorship of Baby Face, Gone with the Wind, Citizen Kane.
Mussolini and Lenin used the propaganda power of film. Italian neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post WWII Italy, reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life - poverty and desperation. Example: The Bicycle thieves, Ossessione
French New Wave:
1959-1964 - French New Wave: Influenced by poetic realism and philosophy of jean Paul Sartre, The movies featured unprecedented methods of expression, such as long tracking shots. Also, these movies featured existential themes, such as stressing the individual and the acceptance of the absurdity of human existence. Many of the French New Wave films were produced on tight budgets; often shot in a friend's apartment or yard, using the director's friends as the cast and crew. Directors were also forced to improvise with equipment (for example, using a shopping cart for tracking shots). The cost of film was also a major concern; thus, efforts to save film turned into stylistic innovations. Hitchcock had an influence on Claude Chabrol, time and mortality were major themes used by Anges Varda a major hand in shaping New Wave. Example Jean-Luc Godard, Breathless
England and the Free Cinema Movement:
developed in 1956-1959 rejection of conventions, they also turned their cameras on ordinary peep and everyday life, and proclaimed their freedom to make films without the demands of producers, distributors, or other commercial considerations. Victim, first major movie about gay rights (1961)
Denmark and the Dogme 95 movement:
Danish cinema known for this movement founded in 1995 by three directors, with 10 rules known as the "vow of chastity" (1-10 pg. 442). This statement of principles brought considerable attention to the country's cinema with movies such as The Idiots, or Dancer in the Dark. Breaking Waves, a 1996 film broke these conventions and rules
Germany and Das nee Kino:
in 1962 writers tried to revive german film with a manifesto known as the Oberhausen Manifesto fusing economic, aesthetic, and political goals - sought to create a new cinema free from historical antecedents. Example The American Friend (1977)
Japan's Nubero Bagu:
50's - 70's an extreme movement grew significantly influenced by French New Wave and focused on upsetting cinematic and social conventions. Example: In the Realm of the Senses - themes of sex and violence and banned from many countries
China and Postwar Film Making:
1) The People's Republic - Taboo social issues, Western films 2) Hong Kong - more founds on martial-arts action movies that stem from chinese tradition. Both Wushu and kung fu combined in films. Example A Better Tomorrow (1986) a band of bloody brothers, a film of violent action depicted in brilliantly choreographed scenes 3) Taiwan - concerned with realist depictions of ordinary people. Example: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, martial-arts
1965-1995 The New American Cinema:
The collapse of the studio system, replaced by scattered enterprises known as "independent filmmaking", born out of the values of its time. Documentaries and experimental films grew as time went on. Examples: Femme fatals in Bonnie and Clyde, telling the American story in Stranger Than Paradise, the rise in demand for sex and violence The Wild Bunch, Dog Star Man and Grey Gardens the rise of experimental and documentary film.