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47 terms

Systematic Botany

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fruit
mature ovary
pericarp
wall of a mature ovary
exocarp
outer layer of fruit wall or pericarp
mesocarp
middle fleshy/pulpy
endocarp
inner layer like pit or stone
seed
mature ovule
dehiscent
dry, open at maturity and seed comes out
indehiscent
fleshy, don't release seed at maturity
drupe
outer part is soft can be leathery/fibrous, center has one or more hard pits or stones, consisting of a bony endocarp, examples are peach, olive, avocado
berry
fruit formed from 1 compound ovary and few to many seeds, examples are tomato, kiwi, grape, and banana
hesperidium
berry like fruit covered with a thick leathery rind w/ locules filled with fleshy hairs, examples are orange
pepo
fruit derived from a compound inferior ovary in which the outer wall becomes hard and tough, examples are watermelon and cucumber
multiple
fruit made up of more than 1 flower usually with superior ovaries, examples are pineapple, fig (synconium), and mulberry
pome
fruit formed from a compound inferior ovary in which receptacle or calyx tube becomes thick and fleshy, examples are apple and pear
aggregate
fruit with receptacle that is not especially fleshy that has several to many pistils that become a fleshy drupe, example is a blackberry
accessory
fruit made up of succulent receptacle covered with several to many pistils, each forming a dry achene like fruit, example is a strawberry
rose hip
a cluster of achenes surrounded by a hypanthium or cup-shaped receptacle
achene (cypsela)
one locule/seed, attaches to pericarp in only one point
caryopsis/grain
one locule/seed, seed attached at all sides of pericarp
nut
one locule/seed with hard coat
acorn
one locule/seed, hard coat with cap, persistent bracts
samara
one locule/seed, winged achene
schizocarp
one locule/seed, fruit with two or more seeded carpels that separate from each other leaving a connection between them
circumscissle/pyxis
capsule that opens by lid formed along horizontal suture
poricidal
capsule that has pores at top
septicidal
capsule that splits at the septa
loculicidal
capsule that splits along middle of locule
legume
splits along middle on both sides
follicle
one celled, one carpellate fruit, splits one one side only
loment
single carpel breaks transversely into one-seeded segments
silique
long, with length more than two times width; 2 locular fruit splitting with each half or valve separate from one another so that septum is left behind
sillicle
short, 2 locular fruit splitting with each half or valve separate from one another so that septum is left behind
orbicular
long petiole attaching to rhizome (in Nymphaeaceae)
staminodes
nectar or odor producing appendages
hypogynous
the sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the receptacle below the ovary
dioecious
having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
dichotomous
divided or dividing into two sharply distinguished parts or classifications
perigynous
superior ovary, all outer whorls fuse to form a cup-shaped hypanthium below the ovary
xerophytic
adapted to aridity
aeroles
very reduced branches
glochids
irritating hairs
orcea
petiole base at sheathing stipule
quincunical aestivation
2 tepals in, 2 tepals out, and one half in and one half out
excurrent branching
central axis and smaller lateral branches
decurrent petiole
extends down from points of attachment
arils
any appendage or thickening of the seed coat
caruncle
oily body collected for food in ant dispersal