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practical ecology

profile map

a drawing which outlines the surface of the land showing the height and depths of hills and valleys.

direct count

works with things that are stationary and you count everything in the area following a direct search

beating tray

Tray held under tree when shaken to catch species


_____________ are Jars with two tubes which you inhale on to suck up an insect or other small invertebrates without crushing them.

tullgren funnel

trap designed to catch tiny soil organisms by making them move away from hot, dry bright conditions.

mammal trap

the longworth trap is a ________________ used to keep caught animals alive

plankton net

a cone-shaped net of fine gauge material that can be towed through the water column to collect zooplankton and larger algae in a glass bottle at the end


a ___________ is used to identify organisms in botany or biology,


type of sampling method were standard frames in randomly selected areas are used for the sampling abiotic factors, plants, or sedentary animals

capture-recapture method

a way to estimate populations by capturing, tagging, releasing and recapturing a sample the original sample. Total population= (number of org marked in 1st capture X total caught in 2nd capture)/number marked in 2nd capture,

random sample

a survey population, selected by chance, which fairly represents the general population. eg trowing a stopper to place a quadrat


a ______________ is a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating points on an image, map or ecosystem

environmental gradient

The change in characteristics in an environment from one area to another, A gradually changing environmental factor. eg altitude, salinity in river esturary dept of soil on hillside etc,


a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

light intensity

Used to describe the amount of light reaching an object, particularly green plants. It is affected by latitude, seasons, shading, cloud cover, etc. It is often a limiting factor in ecosystems.


the amount of water vapor in the air


material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter


a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid


open situation or position in relation to the sun, elements, or points of the compass.

cup anemometer

An instrument used to measure wind speed.


measuring instrument for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere

experimental results

Scientific method holds no theory is valid unless its predictions are in accord with _________________

biotic factors

living parts of an ecosystem

abiotic factors

nonliving or physical factors that shape an ecosystem

qualitative result

a result containing no numbers just like colors, feelings, etc.

quantitative study

A research study that is based on numerical data.,
aims to determine the relationship between the independent variable and the depended variable in a population


________________ is to recognize and be able to name a living organism or thing


an _____________ is a number that is not exact; a careful guess


______________ are all the animal life in a particular region


___________ are all the plant life in a particular region

pitfall trap

open container buried to its rim in soil and used to catch animals active on the soil surface.,e.g. insects on ground simply fall in passive trap, ants ground beetles

cryptozoic trap

traps for animals that hide in or under things eg logs , old piece of carpet, sack. etc

natural classification

a classification system that arranges organisms into groups whose members share many characteristics inheritance patterns linneaus

artificial classification

May be constructed for convenience using easily observed characteristics.
Winged flying creatures - bats, robins, butterflies
Non winged flying creatures - mites, penguins, humans


inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival


when two things rely on each other, eg flowers and bees

percentage cover

An estimate of the abundance of a plant by counting the number of squares in a quadrat containing the species and expressing the result as a percentage.


The rate at which something occurs over a particular period or in a given sample.


a summary of the results of the experiment and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis


_____________ is to analyze and determine the nature, value, or importance of your results


interpret data to reach conclusions

frequency quadrat

a quadrat that is divided into smaller squares to assist estimating / counting the relative abundance of the organisms in it

belt transect

A band of chosen width along an environmental gradient, usually 1m wide quadrat along a transect line

dicotamous key

identificatrion key giving two options at each level

ACFOR scale

abundant common frequent ocassional and rare terms used to describe the frequency of an organism in a quadrat

DAFOR scale

dominant abundant frequent ocassional and rare terms used to describe the frequency of an organism in a quadrat

kite diagrams

Method of showing zonation graphically, shows abundance and distribution of members of species.


Small box or case used for carrying collected plant specimens

plant press

plants are dried between sheets of absorbent paper in a _____________________ before storing in a herbarium


A collection of dried plants scientifically arranged for study.


The surface features of a place or region. The ______________ of a region includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.


in a mapping term, it is the way something is facing. Eg The hillside had a notherly aspect, ie. the faces north


The steepness of a side of a hill is its ____________


(of animals and plants) feeding on insects

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