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Section Review Questions
Terms in this set (43)
Explain how the inheritance of traits is controlled in organisms. Use the terms genes and alleles in your explanation.
In pairs, female parent contributes one factor and male contributes other, genes control traits and alleles are different forms of genes
What is a dominant allele? What is a recessive allele?
A dominant allele is a trait that always show up in the organism when the allele is present. A recessive allele is masked when dominant allele is present.
The allele for round seeds is represented by R. Suppose that a pea plant inherited two recessive alleles for wrinkled seeds. How would you write the symbols for its alleles?
Can a short pea plant (recessive) ever be a hybrid? Why or why not?
No, it must have two recessive alleles to be short.
What is meant by the term probability? How is probability related to genetics?
probability can be used to predict results of genetic crosses
How are Punnett Square useful to geneticists?
shows all possible genotypes of a genetic cross and determines probability of a particular outcome
What is the difference between a phenotype and a genotype? Give an example of each.
phenotype is observable characteristics (tall) and genotype is genetic makeup (TT)
A white cow is crossed with a red cow. The calf is neither white nor red, but roan. Explain why this happens.
the alleles are neither dominant or recessive, but codominant
Explain the role that chromosomes play in inheritance.
to carry info for inheritance of traits
Briefly describe what happens to chromosomes during meiosis.
pairs of chromosomes separate to form sex cells with half the number of chromosomes in each
On what structure in a cell are genes located?
How is a Punnett square a model for what happens during meiosis?
shows how alleles separates when sex cells form
The body cells of hamsters have 44 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would the sex cells of a haster have?
How do the nitrogen bases along a gene serve as a genetic code?
specifies what type of protein will be produced,groups of three bases code for specific amino acids, building blocks of protein
Briefly describe the process by which a cell produces proteins.
Messenger RNA produced using strand of DNA as pattern, moves to cytoplasm where attached to ribosome, ribosome helps match the three letter code of bases in messenger RNA to transfer RNA that carries specified amino acid to ribosome, match up with three letter codes of bases on messenger RNA, protein chain grows until ribosome reached a three letter code that acts as a stop sign
What possible effects can a mutation have?
Harmful, helpful, or neither (depending on enviornment)
Where in a cell does protein synthesis take place?
on a ribosome in cytoplasm
Why are mutations that occur in an organism's body cells not passed to offspring?
only sex cells can pass on chromosomes to offspring, body cells aren't they stay with the parent
Why do human traits such as height and skin color have many different phenotypes?
traits are controlled by many genes influenced by enviornment, genes act together as a group to produce a single trait
Explain why red-green colorblindness is more common in males than females.
red-green colorblindness travels on X chromosome, males have one X and Y(Y's aren't related to sex_linked genetics) and females have two X's, for a female to have colorblindness her dad has to be colorblind and her mom has to be a carrier or colorblind, for a male to have colorblindness at least the mom has to be a carrier
What is a pedigree? How are pedigrees used?
chart or family tree that trait which members of a family have a particular trait, it's used to trace the inheritance of traits in humans
Explain how genetic disorders occur in humans. Give two examples of genetic disorders.
mutations, or changes in a persons DNA, for example, crystic fibrosis and sickle-cell disease
Describe two tools that doctors use to detect genetic diorders beside pedigrees.
amniocentesis and karyotype
How do the cells of people with Down syndrome differ from those of others? How might this difference arise?
they have extra copy of chromosomes (21) it might arise if chromosome don't separate correctly during meiosis
What nitrogen bases pair up?
Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G), Adenine (A) and Thymine (T)
What are the four nitrogen bases?
Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C)
What are factors that control traits called?
What are the different forms of a gene called?
What refer to an organisms physical characteristics?
What is the passing on of traits form parent to offspring?
What is the scientific study of heredity?
What is variation in human skin color a result of?
What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
Genes are carried from parents to offspring on chromosomes
What happens during meiosis (big idea)?
Chromosome pairs separate to form new sex cells?
Which term refers to physical characteristics that are studied in genetics?
What is the genetic code?
The order of nitrogen bases along a gene
What do the order of the bases along a gene determine?
the order ofamino acids that put togeter to form a protein
Where does the protein syntesis take place?
on the ribosomes in cytoplasm
Whats the difference between alleles and traits?
Alleles are different forms of genes and trait are physical characteristics
What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance?
Both alleles are expressed but in incomplete dominance its a mix and in codominance both alleles are expressed separately
Who was Gregor Mendel and why was he importanat to genetics?
He was a teacher who's work formed the foundation of genetics by using data from his pea garden
What is RNA
plays important role in production in proteins
What is DNA replication?
making an identical copy of a section of Duplex DNA, using existing DNA as template for synthesis of new DNA
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