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Edict of Nantes

1598, gave limited toleration to French Protestants; allowed France to become united and start turning its eyes outward (towards the New World)

Samuel de Champlain

brave soldier/explorer; "Father of New France"; started establishment of Quebec in 1608 on St.Lawrence River; allied with Huron Indians and fought Iroquois for them


Native American tribe that the French fought against alongside the Huron Indians; hampered French penetration of the Ohio Valley and allied themselves with the British during the Seven Years War

Antoine Cadillac

Frenchman who founded Detroit to thwart the English in 1701

Robert de La Salle

sailed down Mississippi River in 1682 to the Gulf to check Spanish; named great interior basin "Louisiana" after King Louis XIV; murdered when he returned to Gulf in 1687; allowed French to plant posts in Mississippi and Louisiana (New Orleans, 1718) to block Spain on Gulf of Mexico; allowed French to use Illinois for grain (to ship to France)


French Protestants; thousands murdered on St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572; granted limited toleration in 1598 Edict of Nantes; denied refuge in New France

New France

French colonies in New World; 1608 started establishment in Quebec on St. Lawrence River; completely controlled by the King; population was 60 thousand, mostly Catholic; motivation was not economic (more interested in Caribbean islands) nor religious (Huguenots denied religious refuge there)

Seven Years War

French and British war over Ohio Valley (west land for British, link to Mississippi Valley holdings for French); started by George Washington in Ohio Valley in 1754; war fought in America, Europe, West Indies, Phillipines, Africa, and the ocean; Britain and Prussia v. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia

Edward Braddock

English general who set off with two thousand men in 1755 to capture Fort Duquesne; his force consisted of "buckskins", ill-disciplined colonial militiamen who fought guerilla warfare; moved slowly, attacked by French-Indian force; it collapsed; this encouraged Indians who then moved from Pennsylvania to North Carolina

James Wolfe

appointed by William Pitt to lead 1759 British expedition into Quebec where he defeated the French under Marquis de Montcalm

Marquis de Montcalm

leader of French in Quebec who was defeated by English James Wolfe in 1759

William Pitt

British general; aka "Great Commoner" and "Organizer of Victory"; switched British focus in war from West Indies to Quebec-Montreal area; led 1758 expedition against Louisbourg (first significant British victory); appointed James Wolfe for Quebec expedition, 1759; led to fall of Montreal in 1760 (no more French left in Canada)

Proclamation of 1763

issued by British government after Seven Years War; prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians (to provide security from Indians); outraged colonists, who ignored it anyways


French settlers in Nova Scotia who were uprooted by the British (who had won the land and feared rebellion) in 1755; forced as far as Louisiana, where their 1 million descendants are called "Cajuns"


name of the 1 million descendants (in Louisiana) of Acadians forced out of Nova Scotia by the British

Albany Congress

British-summoned intercolonial congress to New York in 1754 during the Seven Years War; summoned to win Iroquois support


Ottawa chief who led several tribes (aided by a handful of French traders) in 1763 in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio Country; besieged Detroit in 1763 and eventually overran all but three British posts west of the Appalachians; British retaliated by sending blankets infected with smallpox to the tribe, which crushed the uprising and brought an uneasy truce; led to Proclamation of 1763

War of Spanish Succession

1702-1713; known as Queen Anne's War in America; one of the first contests among European powers for North America; pitted British colonists against the French coureurs de bois, with both sides recruiting Indians; France and Spain eventually allied

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