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final hdfs 212
Terms in this set (50)
what are the reasons that adolescents engage in risk-taking?
-underestimate the potential dangers of being involved in risky behavior
-look for peer acceptance, sense of belonging
-romanticize and identify with adult behaviors such as smoking and sex
on average, how many high school students have had sexual intercourse?
1/2 of all students
runaways- what are there characteristics?
-conflict with families
-poor interpersonal skills
-insecurity, anxiousness, impulsiveness
-little sense of control over life's events
what are the ways we can think positively about youth?
-understand the challenges of dealing with adolescence
-acknowledge the strengths and attributions of adolescents
-addressing fear of youth behavior
-understanding that each generation experiences a very different world than the preceding generation
-accepting that each generation must express uniqueness through music, dancing, clothing and interests
which communities are at high risk for initiating risk behavior and why?
-low SES and adolescent delinquent and problem behavior
what is the different between early onset (middle childhood) and late onset (teens) delinquency?
-biological risk factors and child- rearing practices combined
strategies of community co-operation
-health, education, social and justice services are provided to young people who may be moved from their home because of abuse, neglect, delinquent or special needs
-the types of resources available within the community, religious organizations, the media and people who live in the community
SES and neighborhood stability
-living in high SES neighborhood is positively associated with academic achievement and negatively associated with dropping out of school
-adolescent boys involved in the criminal justice system who move to high SES neighborhoods are less likely to be arrested again for violent crimes that peers who remain low SES
depiction of teens in media
-people think teens are delinquents and produce delinquent behavior
who admits to episodic drinking?
-male students are more likely than female students to report
-those is upper grades are more likely to report that those in lower grades
suicide rates amongst adolescents- how common is it?
-suicide among young people nationwide has increased dramatically in recent years
-4,600 losts per year in the US
ethnic and racial differences in onset and rates of suicide
-African Americans died by suicide a full decade before Caucasian
-more black women than men report
-Native American have the highest suicide rate
-Major depressive disorder
a less severe form of depression but generally lasts much longer than other types
-depressed mood brought on by stress
major depressive disorder
-occurs when adolescence experience severe periods of depression lasting several weeks or more
-usually lasts 6-9 months
-difficulty concentrating, loss of pleasure, slowed speech, vegetative signs
Ginzberg phases of development
-fantasize about careers
-evaluate interests, abilities and values
-late adolescence - adulthood
-explore careers and crystalize category
Super's self-concept theory
Holland's personality theory
right brain oriented careers
artists, poets, sculptors
left brain oriented careers
critics, management scientists
doctors , researchers
3 phases of vocational development
characteristics of employed adolescents- what struggles do they face?
-paid work may limit time for good leisure activities
-younger workers are more likely to come to school tired and unprepared
-spend less time doing homework
-may become more attracted to unstructured leisure activities, such as going to parties with friends ,using drug and alcohol
-number of work hours during adolescence is found to be positively linked with delinquency, substance abuse and sexual activity
why are there so many "kids on the fringe"?
-high tendencies of partaking in high-risk behaviors
-distance from childhood friends
-quantity time alone
guns/firearms and deaths in school
-nearly a million US students took a gun to school during 1998
-every day in America, 16 children are killed by firearms
-77% of violent deaths in schools are caused by firearms
risk vs resilience-based approaches- what is resilience all about?
-having good outcomes despite serious threats to healthy development
-can be facilitated by not just reducing the level of risk, but also by promoting competence and strengthening assists
what do adults have to do with teenage resilience? (think mentoring, coaches, teachers)
-should be able to offer the relationships, resources and commitment needed to provide the kinds of supports and developmental experience that produce resilient youth
-someone other than a parent with a strong emotional attachment to the child is associated with resilience
resilience and parenting styles
-warm, nurturing parenting style, with both clear limit setting and respect for growing autonomy of adolescence
-strong positive mother- adolescence relations when fathers are absent from the home
resilience- what does it involve?
-stable, positive relationships with at least one caring adult
-religious and spiritual anchors
-high, realistic academic expectations and adequate support
-positive family environment
-emotional intelligence and ability to cope with stress
what do teenagers say about birth control use?
-88% say it is important to use birth control each and every time they have sex
-pressure from partners is one of the main reasons that adolescents do not use birth control or because partner doesn't want to
emotional intelligence and resilience: what is the relationship?
-factors that are amendable to change and are also involved in resilience are emotional intelligence and the ability to cope with stress
resilience/religion and spirituality
-sense of meaning is one of the major pathways through which violent youth find their way to a constructive future
-religious and spiritual institutions and practices being important vehicles to developing a sense of meaning for youth
why do teens avoid talking about sex with parents?
feel uncomfortable and suspect parents are prying into their private lives
mother-child connectedness: how does it effect adolescent sexuality?
-mothers who reported satisfaction with daughter relationship; their daughters reported not having sexual intercourse
-high levels of mother-child connectedness are independently related to delays in sexual intercourse
-teens who feel that their mothers disapprove of their having sexual intercourse are more likely to delay intercourse
"Homeless to Harvard"
rates of abortion amongst pregnant teens
40-45% get an abortion
what do parents do in regard to their children's love relationships?
-parents have an important role in providing sex education to their children and that such communication has the potential to help adolescents make informed sexual decisions
-parents find the task daunting and feel ill-equipped
gender, anatomy and sexual orientation
-most teens will form a gender identity meaning whether they feel more masculine or feminine, sensitive or insensitive
-we are all anatomically either male of female
-largely responsible to ones gender/ hormones
-teenagers, just like adults, will have a very powerful affinity and emotional attraction towards others
a sense of estrangement and loss
- adolescents frequently feel cut off from themselves and others; emotionally distanced from their world: peers, parents, school and culture
central to alienation. Reactions to loss can range from hostility to sadness to indifference - from anger to a defensive
when does alienation put a teenager at risk?
Adolescents are at risk when alienation becomes the predominant focus of their experience or existence
leading cause of death among teens?
Suicide is the THIRD leading cause among 15-19-year-olds
-14% of all deaths in this age range
-number of suicide attempts peaks between 15 to 24
- every 90 minutes a young person commits suicide
precursors of suicide
- experiencing strong feelings about stress, confusion, self-doubt
- pressure to succeed
alarming signs of suicide
- change in eating/sleeping habits
- withdrawal from friends-violent or rebellious behavior
- drug and alcohol abuse
- unusual neglect of personal appearance
- marked personality changes
-loss of interest
- low tolerance for praise
-complaints about physical symptoms
gender differences in suicide among teens
Males are more likely than females to complete a suicide act, despite the fact that females attempt suicide twice as often
what can be traced from gender differences in suicide?
- Different methods chosen by males and females
-males are more likely to use a gun or attempt to hang themselves
- females are more likely to ingest harmful substances
- males are more impulsive and violent than females
-females are more willing to seek out help
Teenagers with this may have an ongoing combination or extremely high (manic) and extremely low (depressed) moods
- usually starts in adult life
- although less common, it does occur in teenagers and even rarely young children
risk factors for bipolar
-Family history of drug or alcohol abuse
- genetic predisposition: if one or both parents have bipolar, the chances are greater that their children will develop the disorder
cognitive factors for teens at risk
-belief in self-efficacy
- cognitive flexibility
-interpersonal problem-solving skills
social factors for teens at risk
- strong social support
- lack of precipitating life events
0 no or few loss experiences
- treatment of psychiatric disorders or personal/family problems.
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