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World History Study Guide

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Silk Road
It was very dangerous and hard to travel in.
Road stretched all the way to Rome
Buddhism traveled from India to China and split into two doctrines
Silk was the product that was most demanded
China & Silk Road
China's economy and power escalated because the silk was highly in demand
Which things or goods traveled along the premodern trade routes?
Silk, glassware, ornaments, plants, cloth, cotton
How did the Chinese family view their ancestors?
Chinese families worship their ancestors
Filial Piety
The important virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience, and care for one's parents and elderly family members
Mandate of Heaven
An ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly
Swahili
Language that is a lingua franca - in E Af. (Tanzania + Kenya) which borrowed words from Arabs who traded with E African kingdom.
Animism
Spirits played an important role in daily life; spirits present in animals, plants, other natural forces or the souls of ancestors
Griot
A member of a class of traveling poets, musicians, and storytellers who maintain a tradition or oral history in parts of West Africa
Nok
The Nok culture appeared in Northern Nigeria around 1000 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 AD in the region of West Africa.
Characteristics of Djenne-Djeno
South of the Sahel; most Africans live in small villages; ancient city discovered in 1977; located on a tributary of the Niger River in W. Africa; found objects like pottery, clay ornaments for hair; toys, glass; stone bracelets, and iron knives; objects date to 250 BC; oldest known city, abandoned in 1400 AD; had 50,000 people; reed huts plastered with mud; later built houses of mud brick; fished in Niger river, raised cattle, and grew rice; smelted iron; traded products for copper, gold, and salt; became a bustling trade center - linked by the river and overland camel routes for trade
Iron Age in Africa
Artifacts: pottery, charcoal and slag. Life in West Africa as early as 500 BC; South African cultures went directly to the Iron Age; Iron production may have been around by 500 BC; Nok- developed technology for smelting iron; Nok are W Africa's first people; live in Nigeria between 500 BC and 200 AD- first in Africa to use iron to make tools and weapons which spread through overland trade routes
Bantu migrations? Cause & Effect
Migration: Bantu-speaking peoples, began migrations in the first few centuries AD for about 1500 years; lived originally in the savanna south of the Sahara in SE Nigeria; were a group of people who had common cultural characteristics; farmers and nomadic herders; spread skill of iron making; may have been related to the Nok
Cause: Increased population due to better farming techniques/increased food supply resulted in need for even more food and more land; savannas were becoming desert like; led them to move south; searched for locations with iron and hardwood forests; wood needed to smelt iron
Effects: War / conflicts for territory; Bantu had iron weapons and easily drove off other tribes; Bantu spread ideas, intermarry, new cultures created; spread new technology and traditions and political organization; language had an unifying influence.
Aksum - Reasons for its rise as an economic power
Their location was in the middle of trading routes, so it was easy for them to control trade routes
Reasons for the fall of Aksum
Between 632-750 - Islamic invaders took vast territories in the Mediterranean region; 710 Arab invaders destroy Aksum's port, Adulis: Cut Aksum off of major ports along Red Sea and Mediterranean; lost political and trade; culturally changed; spiritually identity and environment were lost; Aksum became isolated from other Christian settlements; new location and depletion of resources led to weakening of Aksum; Aksum never did expand over a very large area
Products traded from Aksum / products brought in by merchants to Aksum
Traded: salt and luxury goods (rhino horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds, gold); Brought in: silk, textiles, spices
Type of farming method
Terrace farming; helped soil retain fertility; increased productivity
Adulis - Importance
Aksum's sea port - Traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and Roman Empire
Religion in Aksum - Why did they become Christians? Why did they lose their Christian identity?
Aksum became Christian because Ezana was educated by a Cristian man from Syria; Ezena established Christianity as the Kingdom's official religion
Aksum's connection to the Roman Empire
Traded in Aksum's sea port; Rome depended in their trade
Aksum's innovations
Ge'ez (language); developed their own written language; first to mint coins in the region; new agriculture methods; dug canals to channel water from mountain streams to fields; built cisterns and dams
Muslim invasions - What were the cultural results? How did they spread their religion and culture?
Culturally changed; spiritual identity and environment were lost. Arabs settled in Aksum.
Beringia
A loosely defined region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea. It includes parts of Chukotka and Kamchatka in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States.
Ice Age
A period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice and alpine glaciers.
Mesoamerica
a region and cultural in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Colombian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Maize and early Latin American agricultural products?
It became the most important crop in the Latin American agricultural.
The development of farming in early Latin American Societies?
Native farmers created Small Island in swamps and shallow lakes by stacking layers.
Effects of Agriculture / changes brought by farming?
Population increased because they had a steady supplement of food. They settled in villages; they had the time to invent innovations/tools to help them in daily life.
Societies before agriculture /characteristics?
They depended in hunting (mainly); they were nomads because they followed the animals
(It increased the productivity of land through the use of animals and bring to the surface the nutrients of the soil.)
Olmec - and their decline?
The Olmec culture was Mesoamerica's first great civilization (1200-400BC). Considered to be the mother culture of societies that came later, such as the Maya and Aztec. Their decline - climate changes which ruined the little crops they relied so heavily in; drought; warfare with other tribes.
Zapotec - identify/ know their characteristic/ place and contributions?
From Southern highlands of central Mesoamerica (in the valley of Oaxaca); 500 BCE - 900 CE; Zapotec cities show a high level of sophistication in architecture, the arts, writing, and engineering projects; had irrigation systems. The city of Monte Alban was the residential, ritual and economic center of the Zapotec civilization. Temple of the Danzantes provides the first certainly identified written texts in Mexico showing an alphabet with semantic and phonetic elements. There's also a system of numbers represented by dots and bars and glyphs for the 260-day year based on 20 day names and 13 numbers with the 52-year cycle of the Calendar Round.
Monte Alban
Monte Alban is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca.
Trade and commerce in Olmec society?
Trade with neighboring clans and tribes was common, but these societies did not have long-distance trade routes, a merchant class, or a universally accepted form of currency, so they were limited to a down-the-line sort of trade network. Prized items, such as Guatemalan jadeite or a sharp obsidian knife, might well wind up far from where it was mined or created, but only after it had passed through the hands of several isolated cultures, traded from one to the next.
Chavin culture / know their culture/ mother culture?
900-200 BC, mother culture, Northern Highland of Peru ,Established patterns that help unify Andean culture, lay foundation for later civilization , highly religion/ no government ,well run for no government.
Nazca /cultural inventions and characteristics?
200 B.C -600 AD ,Southern coast of Peru ,Irrigation ,underground canals textiles ,Nazca lines, pottery
Moche Culture -their innovations and contributions / location?
100-700 AD, Northern Coast of Peru; Irrigation system, tombs for dead, wealthy, jewelry, pottery, doctors, musicians. Ex: (Gold/silver/semi-precious stone)
Chinampas?
Chinampas is a of Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico
Abobe?
A kind of clay used as a building material, typically in the form of sun-dried bricks
Inuit people
Life was influenced by the harsh climate and stark landscapes of the Arctic tundra - from beliefs inspired by stories of the aurora to practicalities like homes made of snow. Inuit invented tools, gear, and methods to help them survive in this environment.
Anasazi
Thought to be ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians, inhabited the Four Corners country of southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, and northern Arizona from about A.D. 200 to A.D. 1300, leaving a heavy accumulation of house remains and debris
How was the Mayan political state organized?
Rival Kingdom or city-states.
Quipu
An ancient Inca device for recording information, consisting of variously colored threads knotted in different ways.
Role of women in Incan society:
They worked in the fields, made clothes, cooked, and cared for the household
Property right worked for women also
Chosen women were trained as priests and servants
East Woodlands people characteristics:
hunter-gatherers; fishing
Mi'kmaq's grew tobacco; Ottawa, Abenaki, and Algonquin grew corn, beans, and squash
Men: hunt and fish. Women: farmed and harvested
tools made of wood
Hopewell culture
describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BC to 500 AD, in the Middle Woodland period.
Cahokia
Location where Mississippian culture thrived before European explorers landed in the Americas.
Flourished 700 CE to 1400 CE
Early Native American cutural hub once boasted a wide variety of edifices, including everything from monumental structures to basic homes for practical living
Ancient Pueblo- Anasazi. Who were they -location.
Ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians, inhabited the Four Corners country of southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, and northern Arizona from about A.D. 200 to A.D. 1300, leaving a heavy accumulation of house remains and debris.
Pueblo
a member of any of various American Indian peoples, including the Hopi, occupying pueblo settlements chiefly in New Mexico and Arizona. Their prehistoric period is known as the Anasazi culture
Mesa Verde
a high plateau in SW Colorado: remains of numerous prehistoric cliffdwellings, inhabited by the Pueblo Indians
The Hopi Indians of Arizona
the westernmost branch of the Pueblo Peoples who once occupied a large part of the Southwest. Their ancestors are referred to as the Anasazi by outsiders, although the Hopi call them Hisat-Sinom.
Zuni Native American tribe
one of the Pueblo peoples. Most live in the Pueblo of Zuni on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico, United State
Arawak
Inhabited northern and western areas of the Amazon basin.
Lived in small settlements, fished and hunted, and had hierarchical organization.
Women/Men - Roles
Women responsible for agriculture and weaved clothes; Men hunted and fished and cleaned the fields
How did the ancestral puebloan protect themselves?
By building their homes in cliffs, which offer protection
• Nomads who migrated to the valley of mexico in 12 AD are known as ______.
Aztecs
In addition to sailing up to the Pacific Coast, early Amerindians from South America also colonized ________.
the West Indies
Inca capital
Cuzco
How did the Inca keep records?
They used quipu, a group of knotted strings. The varying knots represented different place values, which allowed them to easily count crops
The largest city in the Americas in 450-600 BC was ________.
Teotihuacan
Harappan culture characteristics
agriculturally based; sea trade; large compared to other civilizations at the time
What may have caused the end of Indus Valley Culture?
Too much irrigation and invasion from Aryans
Mesopotamia city-states / characteristics
had its own king and own God;
independent city state;
lack of centralized government which meant more frequent wars between the states;
contributed to the fall of Mesopotamia;
solar calendar: winter and summer;
flooding caused fertile land;
three main classes: government officials, nobles and priests, merchants, prisoners.
Sumerians - What environmental challenge did they face?
Faced the need of a stable food and water supply.
Law Codes of Hammurabi
A list of nearly 300 laws etched into a two and one-half meter high black diorite pillar. Members of the upper-class often received harsher punishments than commoners, and women had quite a few important right.
Mohenjo-Daro
An archaeological site in Pakistan, near the Indus River; six successive ancient cities were built here.
Development of Chinese culture in the Yellow River Valley Civilization
Yellow River civilization from the Neolithic Age over 3000 years ago when regional cultures were growing. Some were consumed and other became extinct as "China" grew. Developed through the Zhou Dynasty until unification of China.
Mandate of Heaven and Zhou Dynasty?
Mandate of Heaven is an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly.
Zhou Dynasty was the longest-lasting of China's dynasties. Overthrew the Shang dynasty and justified it through the Mandate of Heaven.
Feudalism in early China
Refers to the allocation of a certain area or region to a specific individual who becomes the established leader of that region.The term also refers to the shared power system between regional leaders.
Innovations of the Zhou Dynasty:
The Kite;
Founded Magnetism;
Created the first geographical map;
Silk
Sin Huangdi constructed the Great Wall of China to:
protect its people and territory from invasion
Contributions to modern society/ Greek concept of democracy included participation by:
all free, native-born, adult males.
Reasons for the collapse of Rome:
Invasions by Barbarian tribes
Economic troubles and overreliance on slave labor
the rise of the Eastern Empire
Overexpansion and military overspending
government corruption and political instability
arrival of the Huns and the migration of the Barbarian tribes
Christianity and the loss of traditional values
weakining of the Roman legions
Spartan:
society built around military, oligarchy and democracy, women were kept healthy and get married at 18, arts was less important.
Athens: only two years in the military, democracy, women married at the age of 14 and worked only at home, art is more important.
Who fought in the Punic War?
Ancient Carthage and Roman Republic
Alexander the Great
king of the ancient greek kingdom of Macedon from 336 BC to 323 BC. He doubled the united Greece, conquered the Persian Empire, reestablished the Corithian League, and doubled the size of the empire. Known for his great leadership in battles.
What important change did the Roman Emperor Constantine make in 313 AD?
granted religious toleration of Christians
Pax Romana
the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire.
Caste system - Why did people in the higher castes have the strictest rules?
The people in the higher castes have the strictest rules in order to protect them from spiritually polluted people.
Siddhartha Gautama articulated the Four Nobel Truths, which taught that ________.
life is suffering, and suffering is caused by desire.