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Terms in this set (164)
Perhaps the earliest form of art, _______ scratched into rock have been found dating back as far as 68,000 B.C.
The illusion of motion may have been achieved with some cave paintings due to the uneven surface of the cave wall and __________.
moving flickering light source
We have documented use of as early as 400 B.C., but ______ may have been in use far longer than that. They are still used by a performer called the "Dalang" in modern day Java.
From 1400 to 1700 A.D., the _____ period was marked by the birth of the humanism and several key turning points in how we communicate information.
Found in Leonardo Da Vinci's sketchbooks were gears arranged for _____.
In 1617, Logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks by John Napier and eventually called ______.
Supposedly the first gear-driven calculating machine, the calculating clock, was built in 1623 by _____.
Not only did ________ invent an early gear-driven calculator, but he also developed the theory of probability, the hydraulic press and the syringe.
This device, perfected in the early 1700's, is often credited with heralding in the Industrial Revolution.
Invented in 1746 at the University of Leyden, in Holland, The Leyden jar was known for holding _______.
In 1801 Joseph Marie-Jacquard used punch cards to control this device.
Automatic Loom or Jacquard's Loom.
Joseph Niepce had the idea to put light-sensitive material in a camera obscura thereby creating the first ________.
Traveling performers in the late 1700's would use a ______ as a sort of projector. They were also used to put on spooky, popular shows known as phantasmagoria shows.
The __________, commercialized by Dr. John Ayrton Paris, consisted of two images on either side of some stiff card that was spun on a string between the fingers to trick the eye into seeing a composite image.
This device consisted of a small drum with slits that one would look through to view the sequence of drawings mounted on the inside. When the drum was spun the drawing appeared to move. The name also means "wheel of life".
The Viewmaster, a toy which creates the illusion of depth, is a modern-day ______.
1888 the Theartre Optique utilized a projection praxinoscope and hand-painted drawings to delight audiences with animation. They were shown by the man who painted them, operated, and invented the projection praxinoscope. That man was known as _______
Eadweard Muybridge and Etienne-Jules jarey both used photography to study _______.
After dealings concerning his Difference Engine fell through, charles ________ went on to create the Analytical Engine. Though not completed in his lifetime, it is hailed as the precursor to the modern computer.
Created by Paul Nipkow in 1883, the Nipkow disk was used for___________.
scanning and transmitting images by wire
A vacuum tube, electron beams and a phosphorous coating are components of a ___________ ray tube.
The calculating device invented by Herman _______ used electricity to analyze data contained in punch cards for the 1890 census
The Kinetoscope camera and viewer of 1893 used celluloid film to capture moving pictures and play them for viewers. They were invented by the team of scientists working under ______________.
Thomas Alva Edison.
Projected motion pictures were first shown by ________.
Auguste and Louis Lumiere
A former magician and one of the most important pioneers of early film, George _________ produced "trick" shots using techniques he developed such as multiple exposure and stop motion.
This 1897 this form of clay was invented:
One of the earliest American films to employ animation techniques was done by James Stuart Blackton and featured Mr. Blackton interacting with an animated face. Copyrighted in 1900, the short film was called __________
the enchanted drawing.
In the beginning of the 1900's, Emile Cohl was an early animator known for his white line on black background animations. some of his animations include Fantasmagori, The Puppet's Nightmare, A Puppet Drama and ________.
Windsor McCay interacted with an animated character also. This film was called __________.
gertie the dinosaur
Raoul Barre opened the first animation studio in North America. However, his most important contribution to animation was the invention of the __________.
Peg-holed paper and holder
In 1916 Max Fleischer and his brother invent ___________________, a device that plays back film footage frame by frame for the animator to trace over.
The world's first animated film, created in 1917, in Argentinean, by Quirino Christiani, was supposedly just over an hour long and called _______.
The oldest SURVIVING animated film is also an example of silhouette style stop motion. It was completed in 1926 and is called _____________
The Adventures of Prince Achmed
In 1927, motion picture film was standardized to its current rate of _____ frames per second.
In 1928, the first cartoon character to appear on television in the USA was ____________________.
felix the cat
Walter Ruttmann's short Lightplay Opus 1 was shown in Frankfort, Germany in what is thought to be the first screening ever of _____________ for a general audience.
When Walt Disney lost the rights to Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Charles Mintz thought he could produce the series on his own and started hiring away Walt's old crew. One animator stayed loyal to Disney. His name was _______________________.
Bosko The Talk-ink Kid is the first _____________________________ and the first Looney Tune Cartoon.
reoccurring character in a series?
The first full color cartoon, seen in 1932, was produced by Walt Disney and called ________________.
flowers and trees
The Brewster Color System used _____ colors.
The first cartoon to be completely storyboarded was ______________________, by Disney Studios.
three little pigs
Proctor and Gamble to sponsor their project. The idea was to have consumers clip coupons off Proctor and Gamble products and send them in for free _____________________.
Alexander Alexeieff and Claire Parker's original pinscreen had about __________ pins in it.
Leon Schlesinger was known for his lisp. In fact, Mel Blanc patterned the voices of both _____________and ______________ after Leon's lisp.
Daffy Duck and Sylverster the Cat
In 1937 the first full-length animated feature film in the United States was released. It was called _____________________.
In Nazi Germany, ______ (a civil engineer) builds his first prototype for a powerful calculating machine, called the ZI
In 1944, IBM and Harvard University join forces to create what will be hailed in the United States as the first computer. It was called _______.
The _______ (finished in 1951) was the first computer to feature a graphical user interface.
in 1947 the first transistors were developed. smaller and reliable, they quickley replaced the unreliable, and extremely heat producing __________.
In 1950, Ben Laposky photographed computer generated images on an oscilloscope to make ________.
PAL runs on 625 scan lines per frame, as opposed to NTSC, which runs on __________ scan lines.
The first computer-drawing program used ____ graphics as opposed to raster graphics.
famous cartoon animator ________ made some radical changes to Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck.
developed by Doug Englebard in 1963, the X-Y Position Indicator for a display system, also known as __________
in 1963, Charles Csuri used computers to create _________
the first British feature film (1954) was
____________ was the first CGI short film to be
for an oscar
The first CGI film to
the first full-length computer animated movie, released in 1995, was _____.
tim burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas uses the _______ animaiton technique.
in Geri's Game, by Pixar, and old man plays against himself in a game of ________.
This action gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as it moves.
squash and stretch
This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression
this principle directs the audience's attention to the story or idea being told.
starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. You can lose size, volume, and proportions with this method,
but it does have spontaneity and freshness
straight ahead animation
more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals
throughout the scene. Size, volumes, and proportions are controlled better this way,
as is the action
pose to pose animation
When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to
the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a
dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at
follow through and overlapping action
when a character or a part of a character, having been still, begins to move. It will not take off like a bullet out of a gun, it has to start slowly and gain speed. At the other end of the action it will .... meaning it can not just stop abruptly but must ease into the pose
slow-out and slow-in
This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the
character animation, supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action
The basics are: more drawings
between poses slow and smooth the action. Fewer drawings make the action faster
and crisper. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and
interest to the movement.
The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of depth apply to animation as it does to academic drawing
includes an easy to
read design, clear drawing, and personality development that will capture and
involve the audience's interest. Early cartoons were basically a series of gags strung
together on a main theme. Over the years, artists have learned that to produce a
feature there was a need for story continuity, character development and a higher
quality of artwork throughout the entire production
Though a character and/or its action may be greatly exaggerated, ... must
remain fairly constant: an elbow is an elbow and only bends in a certain way. It has
inherent limitations. Liberties may be taken but an element of reality must be kept
or it will lose credibility
The pull of gravity is one of the most important principles to deal
with in animation. Everything has a certain amount of ... and will act and react
accordingly. One easy way to lose the attention of an audience is to have feathers
falling like bricks or bricks falling like feathers
The characters are usually cartoony, and the animators have a lot of artistic freedom as ... animation don't have to follow the laws of physics and anatomy in the same degree as the other main styles in animation.
rubber hose animation
A technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by
frame, for use in animated films.
Here the figures are comprised of several 2-dimensional pieces (such as paper or thin pieces of metal) which are moved individually, frame by frame, to create movement.
A type of cutout animation where the viewer only sees
consisting of the animation of photographs and other NONDRAWN flat visual graphic material, such as newspaper and magazine clippings.
A type of stop motion animation where puppets, usually supported by an internal armature are moved frame by frame to produce the illusion of motion.
An animation made using LEGO bricks, Mega Bloks bricks, or other similar plastic construction toys.
The 1933 movie King Kong used this type of animation to create the illusion of a real-world fantasy sequence. It was pioneered by Willis O'Brien.
In this style the figures are
made of clay or a similar malleable material
involves the animated movements of any NON-DRAWN
objects such as toys, blocks, dolls, etc. which are NOT fully malleable such as
clay or wax, and NOT designed to look like a recognizable human or animal
The animation technique where live actors are used kind of like living, stop motion puppets.
The Flicker Fusion Threshold in humans is about ____ images per second
NTSC video uses __ frames per second.
Animation that is painted on clear plastic celluloid and then filmed after placing it on top of a background
image is referred to as _________
Another name for a commonly used animation camera or animation stand
The theory that states that the perceptual processes of the brain and/or the retina of the human eye retains an
image for a split second is
Persistence of Vision
Often used in stop motion animation to provide structure and stability, especially when a material such as wax or clay is being used.
A computer generated image utilizing geometric primitives such as points, lines, curves and polygons based on mathematical equations. Image remains crisp when size is increased.
A computer generated image using a grid of pixels or points of color. As size increases, image develops a
jagged or "pixilated" look.
A visual representation of a story used as a graphic organizer, such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence, for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion graphic (movie, animation, television commercial, etc...) or interactive media sequence. Part of pre-production planning.
A sheet of clear plastic onto which the animator's finished drawings are traced and painted. When placed over a background image the animated characters appear to be in a setting.
In lip-syncing, the phoneme method is associated with _______
A flat piece of artwork that is the setting for a moving character in an animated film
The resolution for NTSC video, in pixels, is ______
720 x 480
The illusion of depth in traditional animation was greatly improved by the invention of the ______
As it pertains to Lip Sync, the other two main patterns that Jason Osipa recommends you chart are _______
open/close & wide/narrow
Jason Osipa calls visible phonemes _______
In speech, sounds can be made primarily by your lips, tongue or throat/vocal cords. However, according to Jason Osipa, animators need only be concerned with the ones made by the ___
The group of sounds that have no shape in the sense that the lips aren't doing anything in particular, but do have the common characteristic that the mouth must be open to produce them are referred to, by Jason Osipa, _______
as open or jaw sounds
All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow a curved or slightly
circular path. This is why it is important to remember the principle of _______, especially when animating the
natural motion of humans and animals
Action traced from live action film can be accurate, but stiff and mechanical. In feature animation, a character
must move more broadly to look natural. We rely on the principle of _______ to achieve this.
An animation technique where sand is moved around on a piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film.
A type of Computer Animation utilizing such processes as modeling, texturing, rigging and lighting.
In 3d animation, the process that adds a digital "armature" to the model that allows for control of deformation of the
characters is a process called ____
An animation technique that makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen.
Claymation, cutout animation, Pixilation and model animation are all styles of _______ animation.
A cheaper process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a "realistic" approach. Example: The
A technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films.
Drawings are scanned into computers where they can be colored, and digitally transferred directly to 35 mm
film. However, the "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved.
In 3d animation the process that is the most like sculpting is referred to as _____
In 3d animation, defining the color and the characteristics of the surface the created object is a process referred to as _______
The most common style in animation, known for its realistic and often very detailed art. Examples: All Disney feature length animated films, The Secret of NIMH, The Iron Giant
In 3d animation the process of creating and setting up illumination for the scene is called
In 3d animation, after a scene is built and animated in a 3d program, the scene must be ______ so the shot can be edited into the film or video.
In 3d animation, the look of the animation can be realistic, surreal, or highly stylized. To create a final product that has the look and feel of traditional cell animation a _______ is applied in the texturing process
The joining of one shot with another in the assembly of the final film or video through organization, correction,
condensation, and other modifications.
An editing device, usually a line which travels across the screen, "pushing off" or covering one image and revealing another.
To combine two or more individual images/elements onto one piece onto one piece of film (into one frame) by photographic or digital means.
The final stage in production, occurring after the action has been created and typically involving editing, compositing and the addition of sound effects.
The slow fading out of one shot and the gradual fading in of the next shot, with a superimposition of images, usually at the midpoint.
Gradually fading a shot in from black or out to black. Sometimes white is used instead of black.
fade in & fade out
Using the camera to scan across a subject using a horizontal motion.
Transitional sequences of rapidly edited images, used to suggest the lapse of time, the passing of events or an abstract unity through thematic devices such as meter, rhythm, tonality, and intellectuality. Often employs dissolves and multiple exposures.
The planning stages of production, involving brainstorming, script writing, scene planning, storyboarding, location/talent scouting, and budget planning.
A single continuous shot in which the camera follows the movement of a subject.
A lens that takes in an extremely wide, hemispherical image--Popular for their unique distorted appearance.
A sequence of images which are created to show a section of uninterrupted motion—Also, an unedited, uncut strip of film or footage.
One individual piece of visual material, which will be composited with others to create a complete visual effects shot.
An unsettling in-camera special effect that appears to undermine normal visual perception in film. It is achieved by using a zoom lens to adjust the field of view while the camera dollies towards or away from the subject in such a way as to keep the subject the same size in the frame throughout the shot. Thus, during the zoom, there is a continuous perspective distortion, as the background appears to change size.
The extra frames added to the beginning and end of a shot, so that there is a little more room for editing.
head & tail
A unit of film composed of a number of interrelated shots, unified usually by a central concern--a location, an incident, or a minor dramatic climax.
Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the subject's movement.
Using a special lens to vary focal length, seeming to bring a subject closer or to move it further away.
A shot in which the camera, often mounted on a wheeled platform, is moved while the picture is being taken. One may movie in on a stationary subject for emphasis, or move out, or travel along beside a moving subject.
Used to simulate the feel of a camera being present, as if the animation were being viewed through a camera lens. Often used when a heavy object is dropped into the picture.
The technical nuance that involves camera angle, distance, and arrangement of objects and people in front of the camera.
A cut to a shot of a character's reaction to the contents of the preceding shot.
Using a special lens that has a shorter-than-normal focal length thereby giving a wider-that-normal angle of view, fitting more of the scene within the frame.
Not a high or low angle, but approximately eye level.
The camera is placed lower in relation to the subject.
A medium shot, useful in dialogue scenes, in which one actor is photographed head-on from over the shoulder of another actor.
Shows the shot as the character would see it (from their point of view)--Usually proceeded by an establishing shot of the character to show their relationship to the shot--Also known as first person camera.
An extremely low camera angle.
worm's eye view
An extremely high camera angle.
bird's eye view
The camera is placed higher in relation to the subject.
A camera angle where the subject is shot head-on.
A shot of lengthy duration.
All of the character and quite a bit of the surrounding background are visible.
The camera is not level, but slightly tilted to one side.
Usually a long shot, extreme long shot, or wide-angle shot is offered at the beginning of a scene or sequence to identify the location or setting. Thus the audience has been oriented and provided with the context of the subsequent, closer shots.
A shot taken from an opposite angle to the previous shot. Also a technique of cutting in which the camera switches between two conversing or interacting individuals. This technique is naturalized to the point that it is unobtrusive and/or unnoticeable.
reverse angle shot
The subject is shot from directly behind.
The camera is so close that the subject nearly fills the frame and/or you can not see below the character's shoulders.
When a subject is light with one light from directly below.
The light placed behind the subject and off to one side (usually the darker side) to help separate the subject from the background.
The source of the subject's main illumination.
The subject is shot from the side.
Most of the character or subject is within the camera's frame.
The camera is extremely close to the subject. So close that you can not fit all of the object in the frame, but can only see part of it.
extreme close up
The light used to fill in dark spots and help define the volume of the subject more.
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