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EFB 336 Final Exam
Workbook and Textbook info, 2013 Exam questions and answers, possible exam questions
Terms in this set (43)
California-laurel. aka: Oregon myrtle, pepperwood.
Size: large shrub to moderate tree. Tolerance: moderate.
Occurs on a variety of sites, requires adequate moisture. Primarily in FOG BELT, also in Sierra's. Vigorous basal sprouter forming dense clumps. Wood used for turning. Leave vapors can cause irritation.
sugar pine. Named after English botanist.
Size: largest pine in the world. Tolerance: intermediate subclimax.
Very fast growing, very competitive, long-lived. (Silvical characteristics comparable to P. strobus). Scattered in open mesic stands of montane zone with other conifers. Only in CA, OR, Mexico. Most valuable of western pines.
Digger pine. Nambed after English naturalist/attourney.
Size: small to medium. Tolerance: intolerant pioneer.
Climate species in arid Foothill Zone with grasses and oaks. Up to 3000' elevation, in Great Gold Rush area. California ENDEMIC. Edible seeds, fuelwood.
Tolerance: intolerant pioneer.
Most widely distributed Pinus in N. America. Occurs on dry sites low elevation and upward. Most economically important Pinus. Fast growing, long-lived, taproot provides dry site advantage. Fire important for vigorous stands.
Grows nearly to subalpine due to summer droughts at low elevations. Mostly dry slopes and ridges. Lower timberline formation with incense-cedar above Savannah Foothills. Best growth, tallest throughout entire range on relatively moist well-drained western slopes of Southern OR and CA.
PNFR: Primary timber species (80-90% of many stands) in Interior Basin.
Tolerance: intolerant pioneer.
Moister, higher sites than ponderosa. Prolific seed producer. Dense seedlings subject to overcrowding.
var. contorta= shore pine, shrubby, prostrate along Northern CA and OR coasts. var. bolanderi= only in one county, shrubby. var. murrayana= Sierra lodgepole pine, more common in mixed stands of subalpine with red fir, larch, hemlock, replaced by fir if fire suppressed.
California red fir.
Size: tallest tree in CA subalpine. Tolerance: itermediate subclimax to tolerant climax in subalpine.
Often pure stands succeeding lodgepole pine. Only in CA and OR. var. shastensis= Shasta red fir, exerted bracts.
Size: up to 200'. Tolerance: tolerant to very tolerant climax.
Moderate elevations with long cold winters, heavy snow. Fire sensitive, drought tolerant. Best growth in Sierra's. var. lowiana large in CA. Dense, tolerant reproduction prevents giant sequoia regeneration.
Size: larger in Tolerance: intermediate subclimax
Only on moist sites at middle elevations in California Forest Region. Tallest, up to 300' along CA coast.
PNFR: Old-growth in Pacific NW is subject to natural resource managers. var. menziesii is the dominant tree in east of coast range where hemlock and cedar are less competitive. Largest tree in these forests. Block clearcutting.
Tolerance: tolerant climax of FOG BELT
Found in CA fog belt. Typically on deep alluvial soils and moist terraces and flats. Long-lived, decay resistant, fast growing. Regenerates by seed or stump sprouts. Tallest tree in world, second greatest volume.
Tolerance: intolerant pioneer to subclimax
Found in approx 75 grooves on west slope of Sierras. Low temp limits upper range, low precip limits lower range. 3000+ years. Not fire adapted but fire or disturbance, and moisture, essential for regeneration. Largest volume. Being replaced by white fir and incense-cedar because of fire suppression. Peatlands.
Tolerance: intolerant climax
Slow-growing, long-lived in dry sites throughout transition zone. Second only to ponderosa pine in drought tolerance. With white fir and Doug-fir on more moist sites. Scattered in stands (like sugar pine). Along with white fir, suppresses giant sequoia regeneration. Wood durable, aromatic, pencils.
Tolerance: moderately tolerant, subclimax FOG BELT
Lives to 600yrs. Low, wet streamsides in fog belt. Occurs with many others species and in 8 forest types. Restricted range: SW OR & NW CA. Widely planted. High quality wood, too rare to be of commercial importance. Export wood shipped to Japan. Root rot very serious due to slow growth.
Tolerance: intolerant pioneer
Very fast growing, aggressive short-lived on moist sites of FOG BELT, post-disturbance. N-fixing nodules. Most valuable hardwood in PNWF region, veneer, pulpwood. Weedy in Doug-fir and Sitka spruce sites. 2000x100 mile range. 2500' or less.
western white pine.
Tolerance: intermediately tolerant subclimax
Large, long-lived especially at mid-slope positions. Best growth in Northern Idaho. Post-disturbance, usually fire, species in the Inland Empire forming pure stands. Very high quality wood, toothpicks. Severe problems with WPBR and mountain pine beetles. Catastrophic fires limit future production.
Size: very big Tolerance: moderately tolerant subclimax of FOG BELT
Best growth on Olympic Peninsula. Occurs sea-level to timberline, replaced by hemlock and cedar along coast and Doug-fir where moisture is limiting. With Doug-fir, most commonly planted American species in maritime Europe. Very versatile wood, airplane construction, soundboards, pulpwood. Highest strength:weight ratio of evergreens. EPICORMIC shoots along bole.
Size: largest of native hemlocks Tolerance: very tolerant climax
Cool, moist sites at any elevation. The most common understory woody species. Climax association with western redcedar. Once considered a weed, now valuable logs, pulpwood, and rayon. Leading export to Japan. 10% of standing timber in PNFR.
Tolerance: tolerant climax
Live to 250yrs. Most abundant in Inland Empire. Best growth on mesic sites near coast but common on dry sites in Inland Empire. Sea-level to 7500'. Dense understory. Ecologically equivalent to Abies concolor, but in northern half of western states. Source of fiber for pulp.
Tolerance: very tolerant climax
Slow-growing. Climax on mesic sites at low elevations. Only on moist sites. Best growth on Vancouver Island, Olympic Peninsula, Puget Sound. Forms dense stands with little undergrowth, few associates but western hemlock. Very valuable durable wood used for shingles, decks. Beautiful ornamental. Logs once hollowed out by Indians for ocean-going vessels.
Largest tree species that is restricted to the fog belt of the PNW.
Most abundant fir in the PNR east to western Montana.
Shade tolerant climax of the fog belt in CA
Largest, most abundant tree in the Cascades, where its harvest is critical to sustained yield forestry.
Moderately shade tolerant, very large shrub that yields a highly figured and valuable hardwood
Shade tolerant climax of the subalipine zone in the Sierras
Largest Pinus in the world
Most valuable hardwood in the PNFR
With ponderosa pine, forms the lower timberline in the Sierras
Along with white fir, the other shade tolerant climax of the montane zone in the Sierras
Moderately shade tolerant dominant following fire in the Inland Empire
Pioneer especially following fire in the montane and subalpine zones of the Sierras
Primary timber species in the Interior Basin
This species has the most restricted geographical range of all above but its varieties are widely planted
Pioneer on stream terraces and bottomlands in PNFR fogbelt
Only conifer above that commonly sprouts at base after harvesting
Once considered a weed, now valuable for logs and pulpwood, including rayon production
Along with oak species, a dominant of the foothill zone in the Sierras
Which best tolerates colder (freezing) temperatures, giant sequoia or coastal redwood?
The largest (volume of living tissue) living thing on Earth
Which requires a substantial input of precipitation via fog, giant sequoia or coastal redwood?
Besides giant sequoia, endemic to CA
Which is restricted to the Sierras, giant sequoia or coastal redwood?
With Doug-fir, the most commonly planted American species in maritime Europe
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