CIST 1001 - Chapter 9 - Securing Your System: Protecting Your Digital Devices
Terms in this set (73)
A program that downloads on your
computer when a user installs a freeware
program, game, or utility. Generally, it
enables sponsored advertisements to appear
in a section of a browser window or as a
Software specifically designed to detect viruses and protect a computer and files from harm.
Program that enables a hacker to take complete control of a computer without the legitimate user's
knowledge or permission.
A copy of a computer file that can
be used to replace the original if it's lost or
biometric authentication device
A device that uses some unique characteristic of
human biology to identify authorized users.
A hacker who uses his or her knowledge to destroy information or for illegal gain.
A virus that replicates itself into the master boot record of a flash drive or hard drive.
A large group of software
applications (called robots or bots) that run
without user intervention on a large number
The application of
computer systems and techniques to gather
potential legal evidence; a law enforcement
specialty used to fight high-tech crime.
A small text file that some websites
automatically store on a client computer's
hard drive when a user visits the site.
Any criminal action perpetrated
primarily through the use of a computer.
An individual who uses
computers, networks, and the Internet to
Doing anything with a
computer that's unrelated to a job (such as
playing video games) while one's supposed
to be working.
When sensitive or confidential
information is copied, transmitted, or viewed
by an individual who is not authorized to
handle the data.
A file that contains stored data.
denial-of-service (DoS) attack
An attack that occurs when legitimate users
are denied access to a computer system
because a hacker is repeatedly making
requests of that computer system that tie
up its resources and deny legitimate users
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)
An automated attack that's launched
from more than one zombie computer at the
The use of malicious
software to attack a computer by
downloading harmful programs onto a
computer, without the user's knowledge,
while they are surfing a website.
A virus transmitted by e-mail
that often uses the address book in the
victim's e-mail system to distribute itself.
A malicious program
that searches for common data files and
compresses them into a file using a complex
encryption key, thereby rendering the files
A software program or hardware
device designed to prevent unauthorized
access to computers or networks.
Data attached to a photograph
that indicates the latitude and longitude
where you were standing when you took
A cross between black
and white—a hacker who will often illegally
break into systems merely to flaunt his or
her expertise to the administrator of the
system he or she penetrated or to attempt
to sell his or her services in repairing
Anyone who unlawfully breaks into
a computer system (whether an individual
computer or a network).
The process by which
someone uses personal information about
someone else (such as the victim's name,
address, and Social Security number) to
assume the victim's identity for the purpose
of defrauding another.
image backup (system backup)
A copy of an entire computer system, created for
incremental backup (partial
A type of backup that only backs up files that
have changed since the last time files were
A process used by antivirus
software; compares old and current qualities
of files to detect viral activity.
keystroke logger (keylogger)
A type of spyware program that monitors keystrokes
with the intent of stealing passwords, login
IDs, or credit card information.
A virtual communications
gateway or path that enables a computer
to organize requests for information (such
as web page downloads and e-mail
routing) from other networks or computers.
logical port blocking
A condition in which
a firewall is configured to ignore all incoming
packets that request access to a certain
port so that no unwanted requests will get
through to the computer.
A computer virus that runs
when a certain set of conditions is met, such
as when a program is launched a specific
number of times.
A virus that's distributed by hiding it inside a macro.
Software that's intended to
render a system temporarily or permanently
useless or to penetrate a computer system
completely for purposes of information
gathering. Examples include spyware,
viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
master boot record
A small program that runs whenever a computer boots up.
A process that requires two of the three assigned factors be demonstrated before authentication is
A type of computer virus that attempts to infect computers using more than one method.
network address translation
A process that firewalls use to assign
internal Internet protocol addresses on a
packet analyzer (sniffer)
A computer hardware device or software program
designed to detect and record digital
information being transmitted over a network.
A process in which firewalls
are configured so that they filter out packets
sent to specific logical ports.
A firewall specifically designed for home networks.
Planting malicious code on a
computer that alters the browser's ability to
find web addresses and that directs users to
The process of sending e-mail
messages to lure Internet users into
revealing personal information such as
credit card or Social Security numbers or
other sensitive information that could lead
to identity theft.
A virus that changes its virus signature (the binary pattern that makes the virus identifiable) every time it infects a new file. This makes it more difficult for
antivirus programs to detect the virus.
The act of creating an invented
scenario (the pretext) to convince someone
to divulge information.
Files that are used in the
running of software programs and that do
not store data.
The placement (by antivirus
software) of a computer virus in a secure
area on the hard drive so that it won't spread
infection to other files.
Programs that allow hackers to gain
access to your computer and take almost
complete control of it without your knowledge.
These programs are designed to subvert normal
login procedures to a computer and to hide their
operations from normal detection methods.
A type of malware that's
downloaded onto your computer and that tries
to convince you that your computer is infected
with a virus or other type of malware.
A list of commands (mini-programs or
macros) that can be executed on a computer
without user interaction.
Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction for the purpose of enticing individuals to reveal sensitive information.
Unwanted or junk e-mail.
An option you can select in
your e-mail account that places known or
suspected spam messages into a folder
other than your inbox.
A targeted phishing attack
that sends e-mails to people known to be
customers of a company. Such attacks
have a much greater chance of successfully
getting individuals to reveal sensitive data.
An unwanted piggyback program
that downloads with the software you want
to install from the Internet and then runs in
the background of your system.
A virus that temporarily erases
its code from the files where it resides and
hides in the active memory of the computer.
A device that protects computers and other electronic devices from power surges.
A virus that's triggered by the
passage of time or on a certain date.
A computer program that
appears to be something useful or desirable
(such as a game or a screen saver), but at the
same time does something malicious in the
background without the user's knowledge.
A computer program that attaches
itself to another computer program (known
as the host program) and attempts to spread
itself to other computers when files are
A portion of the virus code
that's unique to a particular computer virus
and that makes it identifiable by antivirus
white-hat hacker (ethical
A hacker who breaks into systems just for
the challenge of it (and who doesn't wish to
steal or wreak havoc on the systems). Such
hackers tout themselves as experts who are
performing a needed service for society by
helping companies realize the vulnerabilities
that exist in their systems.
whole-house surge protector
A surge protector that's installed on (or near) the
breaker panel of a home and that protects all
electronic devices in the home from power
A program that attempts to
travel between systems through network
connections to spread infections. Worms can
run independently of host file execution and
are active in spreading themselves.
A computer that's controlled by
a hacker who uses it to launch attacks on
other computer systems.
_________ is any type of crime perpetrated via a
computer or a website.
__________ use computers, the Internet, and
computer networks to commit their crimes.
A _________ is a program that attaches itself
to another program and attempts to spread to other
computers when files are exchanged.
The best defense against viruses is to install _______________. You should update the software on a
regular basis and configure it to examine all e-mail
attachments for viruses. You should periodically run a
complete virus scan on your computer to ensure that
no viruses have made it onto your hard drive.
A __________ can use software to break into almost any computer connected to the Internet, unless proper precautions are taken.
___________ are software programs or hardware
devices designed to keep computers safe from
hackers. You can close to invaders open logical ports and potentially make your computer invisible to other computers on the Internet.
__________ passwords contain a mixture of upper- and
lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols and are
at least 14 characters long. Passwords should not
contain words that are in the dictionary or easy-to guess personal information, like your pet's name.
Biometric authentication devices
_______________ use a physical
attribute that is not easily duplicated to control
access to data files or computing devices. Some
laptops and smartphones today feature fingerprint
readers and facial-recognition software to control