Articulation: Difficulty producing alveolar consonants /s, z, t, d/ and labiodental sounds /f, v/.
Voice/Resonance: Hyponasality due to changes in oro-pharyngeal structures, additional complications if cleft palate is present.
Language: Deficits vary with cognitive level, hearing status, and degree/timing of surgical treatment.
Oral Motor: Highly arched high palate, irregular dentition, and malocclusion, with forward posture of the tongue.
Feeding and Swallowing: Intervention is more commonly required if there are concurrent GI issues which have necessitated early tube-feeding.
Aural Rehabilitation: Bone-conduction amplification is often recommended.
Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18), 1q21.1 duplication syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome and in Apert syndrome, craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis, LEOPARD syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, Andersen-Tawil syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome and cri du chat syndrome, along with piebaldism, prominent inner third of the eyebrows, irises of different color, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mucopolysaccharide metabolism disorders (Morquio syndrome, Hurler's syndrome), deafness and also in hypothyroidism.