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84 terms

Anatomy Chapter 23

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
mixing and propulsion
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth?
ingestion
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?
absorption
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to soften and moisten food?
salivary glands
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
liver
Which of the accessory organs stores bile
gallblader
These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response.
MALT
This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis.
enteric nervous
Why would you expect emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?
because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract
This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine.
greater omentum
The hard palate:
is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, is formed by the maxillae and the palatine bone, is covered by a mucous membrane
In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with:
periodontal ligament
Deciduous molars are replaced with:
premolars (bicuspids)
Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
feces formation
This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage.
rugae
Which of the following secrete gastric acid?
parietal cells
This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid.
G cell
This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions.
pancreatic duct
Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins?
Pepsin
This is the heaviest gland in the body.
liver
THis is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus.
round ligament
This is the principle bile ligament.
bilirubin
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
storage of bilirubin
Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?
paneth cells
Which of the following enzymes acts to produce monoglycerides and fatty acids as products?
lipase
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce monosaccharides?
amylase
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
chymotrypsin
This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine.
secretin
This hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine.
cholecystokinin
This digestive aid, produce by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins.
hydrochloric acid
This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon.
ileocecal sphincter
The wavelike, rhythmic contractions that move food through the digestive tract are called:
peristalsis
The pyloric sphincter is found between the:
stomach and duodenum
The pancreas is stimulated to release its secretions by:
secretin
The physical and chemical breakdown of food is completed primarily in the:
small intestine
Gastric glands increase their secretory activity in response to a hormone released from the:
stomach
The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum is the ______ cavity:
peritoneal
The intrinsic factor is produced by ____ cells of the gastric glands:
parietal
Digestion begins in the:
mouth
Taste buds are found in elevations on the dorsal surface of the tongue called:
papillae
What are the names of the three sections of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejenum, ileum
The final products of protein digestion are:
amino acids
Absorption of nutrients occurs primarily in the:
small intestine
Which hormone stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice that is rich in digestive enzymes and contraction of the wall of the gallbladder to release bile?
cholecystokinin
The inner surface of each lip is attached to the gum by a midline fold of mucous membrane called the:
labial frenulum
Mumps is a viral infection, inflammation, and enlargement of the:
parotid salivary glands
During the act of deglutition:
food moves from the mouth to the stomach
The dental formula of the deciduous teeth in humans is:
2-1-0-2
The dental formula of the permanent teeth in humans is:
2-1-2-3
Wisdom teeth are of this late erupting type:
molars
The serosa of the GI tract is the same as the layer known as the parietal peritoneum.
false
The localized mixing contractions and relaxations of the muscularis that do not push along the GI tract is called peristalsis
false
The round ligament is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus, a vessel found in fetal circulation
false
The end products of chemical digestion of complex carbohydrates and double sugars are:
monosaccharides or simple sugars
The end products of chemical digestion of proteins are:
amino acids
The end products of chemical digestion of lipids (triglycerides) are:
monoglycerides and fatty acids
lipases break down:
lipids
Proteases break down:
proteins
Individuals who do not produce adequate amounts of enzyme lactase are said to be:
lactose intolerant
The lymphatic capillary found in a villus is specifically called a
lacteal
_______ is the scientific term that describes the movement of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach.
deglutinition
The four principal anatomic regions of the stomach are the:
cardia, fundus, body, and the pylorus
Intrinsic factor released by the _____ cells in the stomach mucosa and is important for the absorption of vitamin _____ that is needed for erythropoiesis
parietal, B12
Responsible for churning, peristalsis, storage and chemical digestion with the enzyme pepsin
stomach
Responsible for ingestion, mastication, and deglutition
mouth
Contains aggregated lymphatic follicles in the submucosa
ileum
produces and secretes bile
liver
contains duodenal glands in the submucosa
duodenum
coiled tube attached to the cecum
appendix
collapsed muscular tube involved in deglutition and peristalsis
esophagus
Produces a fluid in the mouth that helps cleanse the mouth and lubricates, dissolves and begins the breakdown of food
salivary glands
forces the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing; places food in contact with the teeth
tongue
forms a semisolid waste material through haustral churning and peristalsis
colon
passageway for food, fluid, and air, involved in deglutition
pharynx
composed of enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity, used in mastication
teeth
contain acini that release juices containing several digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate to buffer stomach acid.
pancreas
storage area for bile
gallbladder
lymphatic capillary used for chylomicron absorption in the small intestine
lacteal
Longitudinal muscular bands in the large intestine, tonic contractions produce haustra
teniae coli
stomach enter endocrine cells that secrete gastrin
G cells
secrete lysozyme; help regulate microbial population in the intestines
paneth cells
produce HCl and intrinsic factor in the stomach
parietal cells
finger or ridge like projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase the surface area for digestion and absorption
villi
Layer fo the micro villi of the small intestines that increase the surface area for absorption; also contain some digestive enzymes
brush border