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amino acids aren't stored in large quantities in (2)

blood or cells

cellular a.a are

polymerized into proteins needed by cells

a. a in blood may be used for energy. if used...

a.a. are replced by breakdown of protein in cells

excess a.a. stored

as fats or gycogen

occurs in

removing amino groups resulting in alpha ketoacid

alpha ketoacid can be converted to

intermediate of metabolic pathways

alpha ketoglutarate + NADH + amino acid ---> gultamate alpha ketoacid (convert to intermediate)


to restore alpha ketaglutarate

gultamate + NAD + h2o --> NADH + alpha ketoglutarate + NH3 + H

need to keep NH3 levels low because..

they stop cytric cycle

solution to NH3

urea cycle in liver
2 NH3 + Co2 --> urea (secreted in urine)

energy potential of a.a. depends on...

which intermediate a.a. becomes

some a.a. converted to

acetyl coa then combined to ketone bodies to body cells

some a.a. are intermediates of CAC


example of CAC

isoleucine become succinyl CoA


1 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP

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