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what school of criminology does the rational choice theory have its roots in?
classical school of criminology
the "high" or excitement/exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in danger situations
research on the immediate impact of well publicized executions had what effect on murder rate?
failed to find an immediate impact on murder rate
social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to what?
what reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits?
evidence exists that indicates that abnormally low levels of brain chemical compounds called _____ are associated with violent behavior
what brought national attention to the view that biochemical conditions can influence antisocial behavior?
according to what theory do people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli?
segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.
which theory focuses on urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates, to explain crime?
social disorganization theory
process in which subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next
general strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how life events influence behavior
what two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?
cultural defined goals and socially approved means to obtain them
adolescents who do not receive affection from their parents during childhood are more likely to...
use illicit drugs as they mature
when examining the relationship between delinquent peers and fear of punishment, what may outweigh the fear?
loyalty to delinquent peers
what process refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values?
criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by maintaining that the crime victim "had it coming"
denial of the victim
what has been raised regarding the validity of social control theory?
delinquency may lead to weakened social bonds, not vice versa
what is not a basic concern of critical criminologists?
increased effect of media and demystifying the law
crime according to critical theorists
political concept designed to protect the power of the upper class
what crime describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government.
according to this type of critical theory, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but the poor are certainly arrested and punished more often.
instrumental theorists consider it essential to ______ law and justice - this is, to unmask its true purpose.
peacemaking criminologists view the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as....
encouraging crime rather than preventing it
integrative methodology in the early research of ______ formed the basis of today's developmental approach
latent trait theories hold that human development is controlled by.....
a "master trait" present at birth or soon after
why is early onset an important factor in crime?
early onset of antisocial behavior predicts more serious criminality
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