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the practical application of science to improving life


useless in battle but good for duels


inventor of the steel plow; halved the labor required to clear prairie for planting.

John Deere

Midwest's major cash crop


inventor of mechanical reaper; harvested grain 7x faster with half the labor force

Cyrus McCormick

droppings of sea birds used as fertilizer


identical components made by machine tools, speeding manufacturing process; by Eli Whitney

interchangeable parts

(one of the Connecticut Firms) began mass producing the revolving pistol.

Smith & Wesson

dramatized technology's democratic promis


had more track than any other railroad in 1855; made money by haling cargo and by real estate speculation

Illinois Central Railroad

helped made Wall Street the nation's greatest capital market

Railroad boom

home to Irish immigrants and free blacks


first national epidemic that followed shipping routes

cholera epidemic of 1832

first to employ anesthesia during surgery

Crawford Long

successfully uses anesthesia

William Morton

a poet who published a paper on how unclean hands spread puerperal fever

Oliver Holmes

"water cure"-to cleanse and rejuvenate the system


popularized dietary changes as a way to better health

Sylvester Graham

created the scientific fad phrenology

Franz Grall

became chief promoters of phrenology

Orson and Lorenzo Fowler

publishing house by Orson Fowler that marketed phrenology books

Fowlers and Wells

one of the founders of the penny press

James Bennett

greatest showman of the century

P.T. Barnum

one of the many antebellum popularizers of black minstrelsy

Dan Bryant

Inventer of the Singer Machine-a sewing machine that did continuous stitching

Isaac Singer

wrote songs for minstrel shows reflecting white's notions of how black sang

Stephen Foster

British author whose historical novels became widely popular in the U.S.

Sir Walter Scott

author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

Harriet Stowe

pioneer in development of a national literature with distinctively American themes

James Cooper

poet/didn't publish her work

Emily Dickinson

most popular dramatist


created "tales of sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle"


popular figure in Cooper's novels


invented the sewing machine


transmitted the 1st telegraph message


invented the revolving pistol


created the couse of empire; amazing artist


painted numerous Native Americans in their "savage" state


designed NYC's Central Park to look like undisturbed countryside

Olmsted; Vanx

transcendentalism reinforced her feminist ideas; wrote "women in the 19th century"


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