ABM 427 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (99)
US processed food companies (in aggregate) sell more from their own foreign-based operations than they export from their US-based operations. How much more?
In graph depicting Bennett's Law, what is on the horizontal axis?
Consumer Income per capita
Technology change in on-boat storage of apples in the 1980s caused a country to move from a minor to a major player in fruit exports. What country was the discussion example?
World trade in bulk grains, over 1980 to 2000, grew how much in aggregate?
At the mid-point of a J-Curve of industry consolidation, one typically sees the proliferation of what scale firm?
Small and medium scale firms
In a U shaped curve in a food sector development (over time) in former-socialist countries, at the start (left side) of the U on tended to see what kind of firm?
Public-Sector (government) large firm
New Zealand's Zespri did "outgrowing" of kiwi in China, for labor cost saving. But Zespri also did grow-out of kiwi in Italy, which has similar labor cost to New Zealand. Why might that be?
To save on transportation cost
In the reading for today, it is noted that there are about how many middle class consumers in emerging markets?
In the reading for today, it is noted that economic growth is occurring much faster in Emerging Market countries than in North America. Approximately what is the ratio of the two growth rates?
5 to 1
In the reading and PowerPoint for today, it is noted that while the modern retail sector existed and was small and growing, it only really "took off" in "3rd Wave" countries such as China in the
Late 1990s and early 2000s
In the reading and PowerPoint for today, it is noted that penetration of product categories by modern retail occurred in waves. Which kind of product was not in the first wave?
In the reading, it is noted that a certain country became in 2006 the largest exporter of fruits and vegetables (horticulture) in the world, which was it?
What agreement opened the (legal) door to investment by US retailers in Mexico?
What company did we cite in class that was the historically first massive multinational supermarket chain?
What company did we cite in class as a good example of the idea of the "Big Middle"?
What company did we cite in class as a good example of the use of "follow sourcing"?
What is the multinational private standard of retailers for fresh produce and meats?
Baakavor followed (as follow sourcing) what retailer into China?
What is the name of the leading chain in India that introduced small format stores as a way of penetrating dense urban settings?
Which country is the base of Walmarts largest export operation?
Which retailer challenged the procurement system transformation on Michigan apple company?
Which consumption-country (base of procuring retailer in Asia) is a challenger of procurement system transformation on US apple compared to Asian competitors?
What was the first country in Asia Wal-Mart entered, per the HBS case study?
What was the first Asian country that Wal-Mart entered and left, per the HBS case study?
First country outside US that Wal-Mart went to, per the HBS case:
What is the name, noted in the HBS case, of the smaller-format Wal-Mart store that aims to gain foothold in dense urban markets?
Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets
By 2007, per the HBS case study, in which of the following markets was Wal-Mart not operating?
Who is the German-based retail/wholesale multinational that delisted Australian grape producers in favor of Chinese competitors?
At the start of class today, Reardon told story of "reducing cost along supply chain" from Wal-Mart. It was for what product category?
YUM! is a US-based company composed of KFC, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell. What is its global rank among restaurant chains and approximate 2010 gross revenues?
First, 9 billion
What share does YUM's China operation have in its total operating profits in 2010?
How many stores per day has YUM China opened on average during 2005-2010?
About one store per day
YUM China's early entry (late 1980s and early 1990s) strategy of ownership was...
Joint ventures and franchises
YUM China implemented the STAR system in 1997. What was this important system?
A system of supplier rating to help quality management process
When YUM China in 2002 decided to move from opening 100 stores a year to 400 a year, they required step-change in three things; which did YUM consider the biggest bottleneck to fast expansion?
Training of new restaurant managers and staff
The case study estimated that the YUM China business would be in what size relation to the YUM US business in five years
Twice as big
Which country is the base of Wal-Mart's largest export operation?
Wal-Mart rose in the 1970s/1980s in the US by doing the totally unexpected. What was that?
Started in rural areas and after entered urban markets
Tart Cherries are going NOT mainly towards...
Brined cherries are going mainly towards
The speaker was at what level (his position):
Fresh Processing Level
What form is the retail-ready product (such as on Costco Shelves)
What is the tart cherry type that Michigan produces?
What is the form of the Cherry that they export?
What buyer packs and exports Great Lakes Packing Company's cherries?
How does Roger see exports?
As secondary market that absorbs extra supply relative to domestic clients's needs
What regulation difference across countries that Roger used as an example:
Chemical spray program
Cherry industry created via USDA an inventory management program, what is it:
Optimal supply formula
Brine cherry customers that are finishers are not in what countries?
Does Roger see their international advantage as being?
Their cherry variety
Their processing method
In the HBS case study of Nestle, what food technology created the initial strategic advantage of Nestle?
Milk drying process that retained nutrients
In HBS case study of Nestle, what food technology invention created the advantage of Nestle in the global coffee market?
Dry/soluble coffee powder
In HBS study, Nestle greatly increased its presence in US market starting in 1980s; it made historically giant acquisition, a US company in a product line that was Nestle's traditional line; that company was:
Global Business Excellence (GLOBE) was a Nestle program launched in 2000 that would tie Nestle businesses together under a common infrastructure related to:
Technology for product inventory and marketing
Nestle acquired major brands linked to company names to break into markets. Name any one of the following that is NOT an example of this. Nestle's acquisitions of:
From which company did Nestle buy the former US firm Gerber?
From which giant processed food multinational firm did YUM acquire its brands (different fast food chains):
8. The YUM case study made an emphasis on congee for 3 reasons: this dish was not chicken, and thus not traditional item of KFC, but emphasis of YUM on menu variety in China has come to restaurants for varied meals not for single item as in the US , and congee is Chinese food specifically, thus showing adaptation/local; moreover; dish is eaten traditionally at time of day when KFC stores were not doing much business and were wasting overhead expenditure (rent); so congee was introduced for these three reasons at what meal time?
Which of these is not correct for YUM China's adaptation/positioning strategy?
KFC is more of an aspirational/special event brand (like a quality/niche in our Porter model) in large cities and a functional/competitive brand (like our cost competitive strategy in our Porter model) in smaller cities
YUM China uses a large network of distribution centers in China for logistics that cover small and large cities in order to make it the leading fast food chain. Is the company it uses for those logistics:
Its own sole-owned company
Which of these did Nestle not bring to the CPW joint venture?
Strong track record in manufacturing breakfast cereals
Which market did CPW enter first?
In CPW's first market, in which category did it introduce a new product/brand?
Children's category cereal product
CPW at its birth faced which globally dominant breakfast cereal producer?
ConAgra is seeking to mainly:
Build and differentiate existing lead brands
ConAgra put together in its mixing centers (like distribution centers) a mix of branded products to deliver to each retail client, like a "one stop shop" for the latter; what terms did they use for these mixed sets?
What challenge or potential challenge does a Michigan dried tart cherry producer for the ingredient market, NOT face?
Increase in "healthy category" breakfast cereals
Nestle (and then ConAgra) aim for a dual strategy consisting of:
Commodity (product cycle stage) input and branded differentiated product outputs
When was the broad spectrum herbicide "Roundup" introduced?
In what sector was Syngenta immediately (historically) before it went into agricultural
In what sector was Monsanto immediately (historically) before it went into agricultural chemicals?
With acquisition of what company did Monsanto, in 2005, ascend to first rank globally among seed companies?
In 2009, what share of Monsanto's sales were in the US, down from 64% in 2002?
Biotechnology products research & development costs are large; what did the Monsanto case study say is the typical pipeline from creating the concept to commercialization, start to finish?
Creating a single commercialized biotech product costs how much investment in R&D for the whole pipeline?
What was the historically first biotech trait that Monsanto added to plants?
Which food crisis spurred the "take off" of the private standard of Eurepgap?
Does GlobalGAP specify:
Production practices (process standards)
In the HBS study, the sequence of events that led to the widespread adoption of GlobalGAP as a private standard started with the adoption of a major food law in what county in 1990?
What product category does GlobalGAP not cover
In what year did EurepGAP morph (shift name and coverage) into "GlobalGAP"
To complement the production side focus of EurepGAP, the CIES started what initiative in 2000:
Global Food Safety Initiative
The GlobalGAP covers only suppliers in developed countries
In the Reardon article on standards, what has been the fundamental shift in the past several decades in the role of grades and standards?
From a technical instrument to reduce transaction costs in homogeneous commodity markets to a strategic instrument of competition in differentiated product markets.
In the Reardon article you read that:
"The nature of G&S has shifted from performance (realized characteristics of the product) to process standards."
What procuring-company-managed and established (private standard related) certification system did we study in one of the company case studies?
STAR system of KFC China
What country that is new competitor with Meijer/US for Chile grapes is also investing in Chile production base?
Does Meijer source (not necessarily exclusively) from suppliers that have GlobalGAP certification?
How much produce does Meijer buy a year?
1 billion pounds
What is more important to Meijer in international purchase?
From how many countries does Meijer buy produce (beside US):
Did the recent Country of Origin Labeling regulation in the US have a significant effect on purchase patterns in Meijer Stores?
Which is not a major challenge in Brian's buying from foreign suppliers:
Food Safety of the foreign exporters
Are the foreign exporters that Meijer sources from facing on average higher or lower produce standards in their non-US importing markets compared with the standards faced by the US produce suppliers?
Meijer-Required arrival grade standards for produce are in what relation to USDA grade-standards?
What is the highest financial risk challenge in terms of from "whom Meijer buys"?
What is the highest quality risk in terms of from "whom Meijer buys"?
Brian mentioned Canada greenhouse companies are doing FDI in the US. Where did he not mention they are doing that?
Has Meijer management encouraged the produce buying division to be "importer of record"