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Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (24)
Engel v. Vitale
A nondenominational prayer was authorized to be said at the start of each day at local public schools. Result: The prayer violated the establishment clause. = 1st A.
Gideon v. Wainright
All defendants in serious criminal cases were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it
Furman v. Georgia
This 1972 Supreme Court case struck down all state laws allowing the death penalty stating that they allowed for too much discretion on the part of the judge and jury resulting in lack of consistent administration of the penalty.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Mapp v. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Dred Scott v. Sanford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
Plessy v. Ferguson
supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
University of California v. Bakke
Korematsu v. United States
Court allowed removal of Japanese Americans from West Coast on basis of "military necessity" but avoided internment camps' constitutionality
Lemon v. Kurtzman
The 1971 Supreme Court decision that established that aid to church-related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) not foster excessive government entanglement with religion.
Texas v. Johnson
A 1989 case in which the Supreme Court struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
New York Times v. United States
gov does not have right to prevent new york times from printing info about history of the country's involvement in the vietnam war
Reynolds v. United States
Banned polygamy, distinguished between practices that are protected, religion cannot make an illegal action legal.
Schenck v. United States
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech
Eisenstadt v. Baird
Unmarried people were prevented from getting birth control. SCOTUS said this violated the equal protection clause
Grisworld v. Connecticut
1965; established right of privacy- , Use of birth control is couple's decision
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
more leeway for states in regulating abortion but didn't overturn roe v wade
Casey v. Planned Parenthood
Requires 24 hour waiting period and parental consent
Gitlow v. New York
Gitlow publishes manifesto advocating socialism. Result: SC rules that arresting him is a violation of free speech but if that speech leads to dangerous actions then the legislative branch may decide what is or isn't safe to say. Speech can be punished even if no action is taken.
1st case of selective incorporation
Barron v. Baltimore
ruling that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities (property issues)
Near v. Minnesota
The 1931 supreme court decision holding that the first amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint
Quincy Railroad v. Chicago
incorporated the takings clause of the 5th Amendment into the due process clause of the 14th Amendment by requiring states to provide just compensation for seizing private property. This was the first Supreme Court case that incorporated an amendment of the Bill of Rights and applied it to a state or local government.
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