79 terms

Chapter 2 Combined

Climate, Vegetation, Economic Activity, Physical Features, and GeoTerms
STUDY
PLAY
climate
the pattern of weather over a long period of time
economic activity
any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
landform
any natural feature of Earth's surface that has a distinct shape, which includes features such as continents, plains, plateaus, mountain ranges, hills, valleys, canyons, etc.
physical feature
any natural characteristic of Earth's surface, such as landforms and bodies of water
population density
the average number of people who live in a unit of area, such as a square mile. Population density measures how crowded an area is.
region
an area defined by one or more natural or cultural characteristics that set it apart from other areas
thematic map
a map that shows a particular theme, or topic
vegetation
all the plants and trees in an area.
Climate Zone Map
shows the which of the 12 climate zones exist in an area.
Economic Activity Map
shows land use and natural resources found in a location.
Political Map
shows the locations of countries, states, and important cities.
Population Density Map
shows the patterns of human settlement (how many people live in a square mile)
Vegetation Zones Map
shows which plans and trees will grow in an area.
Physical Features Map
shows the major physical features and elevation of the land.
factors of vegetation
climate, elevation, amount of sunlight, and richness of soil
parts of climate
temperature and precipitation
How to understand a thematic map
Map Title and Map Key
very cold all year with permanent ice and snow
ice cap
very cold winters, cold summers, and little rain or snow
tundra
cold, snowy winters and cool, rainy summers
subarctic
warm summers, cool winters, and rainfall all year
marine west coast
warm, rainy summers and cool, snowy winters
humid continental
hot, rainy summers and mild winters with some rain
humid subtropical
warm all year with dry summers and short, rainy winters
Mediterranean
hot and dry all year with very little rain
arid
hot, dry summers and cool, dry winters
semiarid
hot all year with rainy and dry seasons
tropical wet and dry
hot and rainy all year
tropical wet
temperature and precipitation vary with latitude and elevation
highlands
ice cap
permanent ice and snow; no plant life
tundra
treeless plain with grasses, mosses, and scrubs adapted to a cold climate
desert
arid region with few plants
desert scrub
small trees, bushes and other plants adapted to a dry climate
temperate grassland
short and tall grasses adapted to cool climates
tropical grassland
grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
chaparral
small trees and bushes adapted to a Mediterranean climate
deciduous forest
trees with broad, flat leaves that are shed before winter
mixed forest
a mix of coniferous and deciduous trees
coniferous forest
evergreen trees with needles and cones
broadleaf evergreen forest
tall trees with large leaves that remain green all year
highlands
vegetation varies with latitude and elevation
archipelago
a group of many islands
bay
a part of a sea or lake that extends into the land
basin
A depression in the surface of the land; some are filled with water
canyon
a deep, narrow valley with steep sides; often has a stream flowing through it
delta
the triangle-shaped deposit of sand and sediment that occurs where a river flows into an ocean
gulf
a large inlet of the sea that cuts deeply into the land
island
an area of land completely surrounded by water
isthmus
a narrow strip of land that links two larger landmasses
mountain range
a series of connected mountains
peninsula
a long, narrow stretch of land that is surrounded by water on three sides
plain
an extensive, relatively level area of land.
plateau
a raised area of land, such as a hill or mountain, with a flat top
reef
a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water
river
A large natural stream of water that runs through the land
strait
a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
tributary
a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river
volcano
a break in Earth's crust where magma and other material erupts from Earth's interior
lake
A body of water completely surrounded by land.
coast
Land along the ocean.
mountain
An area of land that rises steeply at least 2,000 feet above the surrounding land
economic activity
Any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services.
subsistence farming
Farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced. Often found in the poorer countries, especially in Africa. Farmers do not have modern tools to help them. JOB: Farmer
hunting and gathering
Living off the land by hunting meat and gathering food and other resources. Most people who live like this live in a small group that travels from place to place following their food sources. JOB: Hunter or Gatherer
nomadic herding
Raising a group of animals and traveling with them as they search for grass to eat and water to drink. JOB: Sheppards
forestry
Harvesting or cutting of trees for wood products. Some examples of wood products are paper, lumber, and furniture. JOB: Lumberjacks, Truck Driver
mining
Digging into the Earth's surface to take out rocks, minerals or metals. Examples would be Coal, Iron, Copper, and Granite. JOB: Miner
commercial fishing
Harvesting of sea life for consumption. JOB: Fisherman
commercial farming
Growing and harvesting of cash crops on a large scale usually with the help of machines. JOB: Farmer, Farm Manager, Laborer, Machine Operator
livestock raising
Raising and selling of animals like cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and goats for profit. JOB: Rancher, Farmer, Veterinarian
manufacturing and trade
Factories produce products and offices provide services in large quantities. JOB: Factory Worker, Engineer, Sales Representative, Banker, Teacher, Chef, Hotel Employee, Manager
petroleum/oil
Drilling, pumping, and refining of petroleum and other fossil fuels. JOB: Chemical Engineer, Pipeliner, Environmental Inspector, Technician
coal
hydroelectric power
iron
natural gas
precious metals
uranium
diamonds
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