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64 terms

Arthropods

Studying Arthropods
STUDY
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The cuticle of arthropods is composed of a thicker inner ________ layer, and a thinner outer layer. the ________. The macromolecule that characterizes the cuticle is
procuticle, epicuticle, chitin.
The nonliving exoskeleton inhibits growth. To cope with this situation, arthropods use a process to shed the old exoskeleton called
ecdysis
The ________ have been extinct for 250 million years but they show the basic pattern that started the arthropods.
Trilobites
The characteristics of four pairs of walking legs, a pair of pedipalps, and no mandible or antennae are found in which of the following?
Chelicerata
Which of the following can be recognized by these characteristics: unsegmented carapace, spinelike telson, book gills, and marine habitat
Xiphosurida
The following group that has four pairs of thin walking legs, eats by sucking juices from hydroids, and is particularly common in polar oceans is
Pyncnogonida
Which one of the following is called the giant water scorpion and is known from 200-million-year-old fossils?
Euripterida
Members of the class Arachnida can be differentiated from other arthropods by possession of a
Cephalothorax and Abdomen
Which of the following orders contains members who have a cephalothorax and abdomen with no external segmentation, and these tagmata are joined by a narrow pedicel?
Araneae
Which of the following traits are unique to spiders?
Book Lungs
Which of the following orders is characterized by having an abdomen divided into a preabdomen and a tail-like postabdomen?
Scorpoinida
Which of the following orders is commonly known as "daddy longlegs"?
Opiliones
Which of the following orders differs from the others by having their cephalothorax and abdomen completely fused?
Acari
The mouthparts of ticks are located on an anterior projection called the
Capitulum
Ticks are interesting to epidemiologists because they are second only to mosquitoes as ________ for serious diseases.
Vectors
The following are characteristics of the black widow spider:
small, shiny black, with a red hourglass on the ventral abdomen
Which one of the following diseases is not carried by a tick?
Mange
The crustaceans are the only arthropods with
Two pairs of antennae
Which of the following structures help the maxillae as food handlers?
maxillipeds
The last pair of crustacean appendages that provide swift backward motion and help protect developing young in crustaceans such as crayfish are called
uropods
The crustaceans have a two-part stomach, in the first part is the
gastric mill
Excretory organs and osmoregulatory pores in the crustaceans are located at the base of the ______.
antennae
The crustaceans have two types of eyes; they are the ________ and the ________ eyes.
median, compound
While the term "blueblood" is sometimes used in literature to reference English nobility, some crustaceans actually have blue blood because their respiratory pigment is
hemocyanin
A compound eye is made of many small units that have individual lens and nerves. These structures are called
ommatidia
The primitive larva of the crustaceans is the
naupilius
Which of the following classes can be recognized by having flattened, leaflike appendages used for respiration?
Branchiopoda
Which of the following classes contains the copepods and barnacles?
Maxillopoda
Which of the following classes contains the crabs, shrimp, and krill?
Malacolstraca
Of the maxillopods in the following list, members of the subclass ________ are typically parasitic.
Branchiura
The crustaceans known as krill belong to the group
Notostraca
The subphylum Hexapoda is characterized by having three pairs of legs and includes the ________ and the _____.
Insects, Entognaths
Which of the following classes is characterized by having one pair of appendages per somite except for the first one and the last two somites?
Chilopoda
Which of the following classes is characterized by having two pairs of appendages per abdominal somite?
Diplopoda
Mouthparts of an insect typically contain four parts. These four parts are the
labrum, mandibles, maxillae, and labium.
Insects undergo metamorphosis in order to grow and exploit different habitats. The individual stages in this process are called
Instars
Most insects go through a complete change of body form from larva to pupa to adult; this is called ________ metamorphosis.
holometabolous
In addition to visual and auditory communication, insects use pheromones, which are a form of _____ communication.
Chemical
Bioluminescence is a form of ________ communication.
visual
Which of the following diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes?
all of the above
A term for the condition in which insects parasitize other insects is
parasitoidism
If you wanted to control an insect infestation in your fruit orchard, and wanted to employ something other than pesticides, you might release a
parasitoid
A classic example of an insect with a type of ________ mouthpart would be the mosquito.
sucking
The openings to the respiratory system of insects are the
spiracles
Which of the following are not respiratory mechanisms seen in insects, in either juvenile forms or adults?
book lungs
The term for the stage of the juvenile insect between molts is known as the
instars
If an insect has an egg, nymphal stages, and finally an adult stages, it exhibits ________ metamorphosis.
hemimetabalous
Insects which show the highest degree of social behavior include the
ants and bees
The arthropods have a metameric body with segments organized into functional groups called _____.
tagmata
The venom of the brown recluse spider is _____, destroying tissues and skin.
hemolytic
Hormones secreted by the ___ iinhibit molting in decapods.
X-organs
Which of the following diseases are transmitted by flies?
Typhoid
A cuticle is different from a tegument in that a cuticle is _______, while a tegument is
dead, alive
Members of subclass Pentastomida are considered to be _________ feeders and are found in
parasitic, vertebrate tissues
Of the groups studied in this chapter, the pentastomids are the only group that lacks a mouth and digestive system.
false
• Arthropods are successful because they have
All of these
• The trilobites are
All extinct
• Chilopoda
poison claws
• The Diplopoda
bear two pairs of legs on most body segments
Spiders
have chelicerae that function as fangs
• Members of the class Arachnida have
cephalothorax, abdomen
• Crustaceans
Have an open circulatory system
• The class Insecta
Has more species than any other group of animals
• Insects differ from other arthropods because insects have
wings.