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apheresis donation is...
automated collection procedure where blood is separated, centrifuged, and the remainder is returned to donor
physical assessment for blood donation includes...
arm check, age (16 or 17), weight (110+), temp (99.5), Hg (12.5+), BP <180/100, pulse 50-100 (45 - athlete)
autolous donations have relaxed requirements...
Hg - 11, weight >100, no age requirement (over 75 - MD clearance)
infectious diseases tested for at blood donation include...
HBV, HCV, HIV, RPR (Syphilis), NAT (nucleic acid amplification testing for HIV), Trypsinoma cruzi, West Nile
what happens when we mix group ABO groups with the wrong ones?
agglutination (climping) - dangerous clinical consequences
lab should be notified of a dog or cat bite/ scratch to look out for...
pasturella (& Bartonella henselae)
a procedure where a tube is placed down the throat w another one inside it to avoid contamination of normal flora is...
how does an Rh (-) mom create antibodies against Rh?
she is exposed to Rh antigens in a previous pregnancy
explain IAT - indirect antiglobulin test (indirect Coombs test)...
detects RBCs sensitized with IgG antibodies in vitro
what is the DAT - direct antiglobulin test (direct Coombs test)?
it detectd RBCs sensitized w IgG antibody in vivo
Rh immune globulin is given to expecting women when?
28 weeks gestation, 72 hours postpartum, and in case of trauma, ectopic pregnancy, amneocentesis, abortion, misscariage
risk to the fetus in HDFN - hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn is...
cardiac failure due to uncompensated anemia
what happens to billirubin that is usually metabolized by the mother which accumulates in newborn (in HDFN) after birth?
Newborn can't metabolize it (missing glycuronyl transferase) so it binds to albumin and forms jaundice > deafness, menatl retardation, kernicterus, eventually could cause brain damage and death
at what levels of billirubin do we take action?
at 15 we get blood ready for transfusion - probably use Billy-lights (phototherapy) - 20 is critical #
RhIG (Rhogam) is given to Rh- mom to...
prevent mom from making Anti-D antidodies to baby's D+ fetal cells
standard blood bank tests done at birth on baby (cord blood) - (forward typing) include...
ABO/Rh, DAT, chemistry - Billirubin
describe an amniocentesis...
ultrasound guided test where amniotic fluid is obtained from insertion of needle through mom's abdominal wall, ans uterus and extract from amniotic sac
what does the amniocentesis show about HDFN?
fluid is measured spectrophotometrically - observing levels of billirubin to measure RBC destruction
how does the Liley graph measure?
at 450 wavelength it measures the change in level - Billirubin bulge
a sample of pleural fluid or CSF contains a minute amount of bacterial infection - is this significant?
yes b/c there should not be any bacteria in these fluids (so we use sterile containers to collect these specimens)
genital cultures can be transported with...
transport swabs, jembec plates, DNA probes for N. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
T or F staph epidermitis is normal flora and safe...
False - it is normal flora, but is opportunistic and can lead to infection
what is significance of staph saprophyticus?
community acquired uti in young women - aside from E. coli (second most common)
differentiate between staph epidermitis and saprophyticus...
staph sapro is resistant to novobiocin, s epidermitis isn't
what is the danger of strep b - strep agalactiae?
neonatal meningitis (colonized in vagina - can transfer to fetus in delivery)
enterococcus faecalis is..
normal bacteria in stool - can cause UTI or biliary tract infection, endocarditis
bacillus anthracis - anthrax is...
gram + spore forming bacilli; habitat is soil; transmission - sharing wool, bio terrorism agent
Clostridium tetani is...
anaerobic, spore-forming rods, habitat is soilenters through trauma to skin, vaccines (boosters 10 yrs)
clostridium botulinum is...
botulism - anaerobic spore formers, habitat - soil, improperly preserved food (canned) - potential bioterror
normal flora SI, but if active produces toxins; pseudomembranous colitis - AB wipes out normal flora and this goes wild
diptheria - can be fatal - resp occlussion - vaccines are highly successful
food poisoned, can become meningitis and fatal, transmits across placenta in delivery - gram + rod
gram - rods, UTI, sepsis, traveler's diarrhea, habitat in human colo, transmits to neonate at birth - meningitis
vibrio parahemolyticus and vulnificus...
gram - rods, watery diarrhea, eating contaminated raw seafood
very deadly - tuleremia from rabbits, deer, rodents - caution handling - bioterror
the plague bubonic and pneumonic - wild rodents, prarie dogs, rats - flea bite, bio-terror
what is cryoprecipitated anti-hemolytic factor (cyro) used for?
fibrinogen deficiency and fibrin glue
what is ELISA and how does it work?
A sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody
what does a titer measure?
agglutination rxn - with serial dilution of antibody: the titer is the highest dilution showing agglutination
Sx of EBV include...
fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes and tonsils, spenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated LFTs
decreased levels of which hormone in early pregnancy indicate inadequate development of fetus and inreases incidence of spontaneous abortion?
what info can be gleaned from HCG assays?
confirmed pregnancy, ectopic p, threat of spontaneous abortion, diagnosis of various tumors (& follow of treatment)
which test is an advance marker (often years in advance) of risk for heart disease and MI?
treatments for AIDS include...
protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
a motile amoebae producing diarrhea and dehydration, contracted through drinking contaminated spring - mountain water is...
hx of swimming in a lake, infected with meningoencephalitis could be from...
nigleria fowleri (motile amoebae)
which bacteria is a major concern in a pregnant female w gram + chains - even low amount?
is a finding of lactobacillus in urine significant?
no - it belongs (normal flora) in vaginal tract - got mixed up
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