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28 terms

The Developing Person Through the Life Span Chap. 8

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Prefrontal cortex
area of cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in the executive functions of anticipation, planning, and impulse control
Auditory cortex
an area in the temporal lobe of the brain that is reponsible for hearing.
Amygdala
two neural centers in the limbic system; linked to emotion. (fear and anxiety)
Hippocampus
limbic system component associated with memory
Corpus callosum
Axon fibers connecting two cerebral hemispheres, left and right hemispheres
Thalamas
Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
Controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward
Pituitary
Master endocrine gland
Visual cortex
Conscious processing of sights
Spinal Cord
Pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes
Cerebellum
Coordinates voluntary movement and balance
Myelination
the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
Lateralization
Literally, sidedness. The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
Perseveration
The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.
Injury control/harm reduction
Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place.
primary prevention
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse
Secondary prevention
actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian.
Tertiary prevention
actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability.
Child maltreatment
intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age
Child abuse
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
Child neglect
failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
reported maltreatment
harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities
substantiated maltreatment
harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified
Post traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
permanency planning
an effort by child-welfare authorities to find a long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child; a goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful to the child
foster care
a legal, publicly supported plan in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents' custody and entrusted to another adult, who is paid to be the child's caregiver.
kinship care
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver
adoption
A legal proceeding in which an adult or couple unrelated to a child is granted the joys and obligations of being that child's parents