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27 terms

LC Biology 2.1 Cell Structure

Cell organelles and the microscope
STUDY
PLAY
Protoplasm
All living parts of cell
Cytoplasm
Jelly like substance which surrounds the nucleus and contains organelles
Plasma membrane
Surrounds cell. Function: Control entry and exit of molecules
Cell wall
Function: supports the cell
Vacuole
Function: gives cell strength and shape and store materials
Mitochondria
Supply energy to the cell, respiration occurs here
Chloroplasts
Green structures in plants where photosynthesis takes place
Ribosomes
Function: make proteins by combining amino acids
Nucleus
Controls the cell. Contains chromatin
Nucleolus
Part of the nucleus. Makes ribosomes
Nuclear pores
Allow mRNA to pass in and out of the nucleus
Chromatin
Chromosomes when not dividing
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Found in chromosomes and chromatin
Ultrastructure
Fine detail of cell as seen with electron microscope
Prokaryotic
Cells which do NOT have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles
Eukaryotic
Cells which have a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles
Plant cells
Have cell walls, chloroplasts, and large vacuoles
Animal cells
Do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts, and only small, if any, vacuoles
Simple microscope
Microscope made of only one lens
Compound microscope
Microscope made of two lenses
Electron microscope
Microscope used to show the ultrastructure of cells
Using a microscope
Place slide on stage. Examine under low power before high power. Use coarse focus then fine focus.
Magnification
Eyepiece power X Objective lens power
Coverslip
Prevents samples from drying out and prevents lens from getting wet
Lower coverslip at angle
Prevents air bubbles from being trapped
Methylene blue
Stain used for animal cells - turns nuclei blue
Iodine
Stain used for plant cells - shows up membranes and starch