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SMP Final: Morphogenesis etc.
Terms in this set (18)
Null mutation of Pax-6 (eye formation) opaque cornea, iris absent, etc.
Mutation in Pax-3 gene (Midline patterning and pigmentation) Results in midline facial deformities and lack of pigmentation along midline.
Mutation in Gli protein (Shh pathway) causing polydactyly
Haploinsufficiency of Gli3 (Shh pathway) Polysyndactyly
Haploinsufficiency of Patched (Receptor for Shh) Pits in skin, rash, syndactyly
Holoprosencephaly / Cyclopia
Mutation in Hh (signaling molecule) Cyclopia, midline error
Defective primary cilia (no dynein arms) results in invertus totalis and chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis male sterility, etc.
Cadherin mutation, desomosome cadherin, leads to lack of inter-cell connections in epidermis, blistering
Integrin mutation, lack of hemidesmosome binding to basement membrane, blistering.
Mutation in otic cadherins (ear) hereditary deafness, stereocilia not coordinated
Failure of parasympathetic neural crest cells to migrate to lower bowels, bowel obstruction.
Diseases of Excessive Cell death
AIDS, neurodegen. diseasese (Huntington's, ALS)
Diseases of inadequate cell death
Cancer, Autoimmune disorders like Rheum. arthritis. Syndactyly
Mutation in Lmx1 Wnt signaling pathway (dorsal/ventral) results in knee/elbow deformities, and dorsal tissues partially ventralized.
Mutation and failure to signal TGF beta, truncated digits
Mutation in Pdx1, fewer beta cells in pancreas, diabetes.
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Read the following two articles. Determine to what degree each article uses facts to back up its conclusions. Also look for evidence of bias or distorted facts. Stem Cells Improve Memory in Brain-Damaged Mice. FROM THE SCIENCE DESK-A research team at Watson University today announced that stem cells can improve the memory of mice with brain injuries. The researchers were interested in how an injection of stem cells might affect mice that had injuries in the area of the brain involved in memory. Working with 100 mice, the scientists injected 50 of the mice with stem cells known to give rise to mouse nerve cells. The other 50 mice did not receive any treatment. After three months, the scientists tested the memory of both groups of mice by seeing whether they recognized objects. The group that did not receive the stem cells remembered the objects about 40 percent of the time. In contrast, the group that received the stem cells remembered the objects about 70 percent of the time. The scientists hope that their research will one day lead to a treatment for human diseases and conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, in which people suffer significant memory loss. "We are very excited by our results: said Diane Brandon, the leader of the research team. "But we are not ready to try this treatment with humans:' Alzheimer's Disease- IS a Cure for Memory Loss Just Around the Corner? Don't look now, but those mice that you hate to see scurry across the kitchen floor might just provide a cure for the thousands of people afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease. Scientist at Watson University are reporting that stem cells injected into brain-damaged mice can cure memory loss. The researchers suspected that the stem cells would give rise to new mouse nerve cells. Indeed, the mice that received the stem cells were found to have greatly improved memories. "We are very excited by our results," said Diane Brandon the leader of the research team. The scientists are confident that, since stem cells can treat memory loss in mice, stem cells can also be used to cure Alzheimer's disease in humans. Both articles use quotations from one of the scientists. Compare the use of quotations in the two articles. Which of the two articles omits something important that the scientist said? How does this omission affect the reader's impression of the implication of this research for humans?
How do domains and kingdoms differ?
Club mosses, horsetails, and conifers have specialized leaves that form reproductive structures known as ____. A. sori. B. flowers. C. protonema. D. strobili.
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