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Marine Bio Final Review
Terms in this set (78)
Which holds more oxygen- warm water or cold water?
Seawater density is influenced by these 3 factors:
temperature, salinity, and pressure
Marine species can have different blood chemistry than terrestrial species. Which molecule is NOT observed in marine species?
Which cline refers to salinity?
Which cline refers to temperature?
Viscosity is determined by _________ and ___________ of seawater.
temperature and salinity
Light travels (better/worse) in seawater than air
Sound travels (better/worse) in seawater than air
Air is (more/less) electrically resistive than water
What are two things that are largely influenced by water viscosity?
sinking rate and locomotion
Why is it important that solid water is less dense than liquid water?
drive deep ocean currents; ice doesn't sink and inhibit life
Due to Coriolis Effect, water is deflected to the (right/left) in the Northern hemisphere.
Due to Coriolis Effect, water is deflected to the (right/left) in the Southern hemisphere.
Which property of seawater is important for buoyancy?
What is the equation for Reynolds number(Re) (______/______)?
inertial forces/viscous forces
A large Reynolds number means an organism lives in an environment dominated by (inertial/viscous) forces.
The process that is the "oceanic conveyor belt"; driven by temperature and salinity of seawater.
Which of the following does not drive thermohaline circulation?
Seawater during El Niño is nutrient (rich/poor) and (warm/cold).
poor and warm
Seawater during La Niña is nutrient (rich/poor) and (warm/cold).
rich and cold
What are the 3 main factors that affect sinking rate?
density of water, resistance (surface area to volume ratio), and viscosity of water
What is countershading?
darker dorsal body, lighter ventral body (pelagic species)
What is counterillumination?
shading of deep sea organisms using photophores
What happens atmospherically to aid the start of El Niño?
trade winds falter
What are the two most common phytoplankton?
diatoms and dinoflagellates
The ______ zone of the ocean is where photosynthesis occurs.
The ______ zone is where there is some light but not enough for photosynthesis.
The ______ zone is where there is no light.
The two products of photosynthesis are:
sugar (carbohydrates) and oxygen
Holoplankton spend (all/part) of their life as plankton.
Meroplankton spend (all/part) of their life as plankton.
Name some adaptations for low light.
big eyes/no eyes at all- replaced w/ enhanced other traits such as lateral line
Name some adaptations for low oxygen.
more oxygen binding proteins in blood, bradycardia, large surface area in gills, countercurrent exchange
What is one physiological adaptation that allows for more oxygen uptake in fish (hint: think of how fish obtain oxygen)?
large surface area in gills
How is countercurrent exchange a good adaptation for low oxygen availability?
conserves heat energy while increasing oxygen uptake b/c it uses a concentration gradient to get oxygen from oxygen rich water into the oxygen poor blood
What is bradycardia?
purposeful slowing of heart beat
Red muscle is good for what kind of swimming?
White muscle is good for what kind of swimming?
What are some swimming adaptations for pelagic fish?
caudal tail shaped for fast swimming, red and white muscles
Ocean acidification is caused by _______ in the atmosphere dissolved in seawater to form ________.
carbon dioxide, carbonic acid
Seawater is (more/less) basic than fresh water.
Ocean acidification interferes with ____________ in shell-forming organisms.
A research preserve is an example of a _______ (3 words).
marine protected area (MPA)
What factors are responsible for the oxygen minimum zone?
not enough light for photosynthesis, bacteria consuming the only available oxygen without producing any
Fishing quotas are set according to this concept:
maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
Most global fishery stocks are classified as:
A. Non-fully exploited
B. Fully exploited
D. Economically extinct
5 variables that impact maximum sustainable yield are:
time of year, El Niño, lifespan of fish, growth rate of fish, and fish reproduction rate
Does sustainable fishing use intensive or extensive aquaculture?
extensive (not as expensive & may not have to feed them/pay to feed them)
The five types of pathogens are:
viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoans, and metazoans
_______ syndrome is a condition in abalones that is caused by a ________ pathogen.
What disease diagnostic is considered the "gold standard"?
Describe the disease diagnostic- histology.
expensive, thin sections of tissue stained and placed on slide- pathogen in host tissue can be visualized; limited by time and $$
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a type of disease diagnostic that:
amplifies pathogen-specific DNA
Coral symbiosis involves a relationship between coral and ________ which are part of the group of plankton called __________.
Describe coral bleaching
coral expels the zooxanthellae because of an environmental stressor such as change in water temp. or salinity
What are some of the "Red List" factors of invasive species?
tolerate wide ranges of temp. and salinities, there is a niche for them in a certain area
What is propagule pressure?
number of individuals of species released into a region to which they are not native
What is an important way in which invasive marine species spread?
human transport via ballast water
What is parthenogenesis?
reproduction without fertilization
Budding, fission, external fertilization, and parthenogenesis are all reproductive processes. Which is not an example of asexual reproduction?
What are some important parts of the mangrove system?
prop roots, pneumatophores, interactions with coral reefs
What is a type of reproduction utilized by coral reefs in which the egg and sperm are dispersed?
Which region has higher primary productivity- upwelling region or coral reef?
What are three possible reasons for symbiosis?
food, transportation, protection (NOT reproduction)
Who is Alford Wegener?
theorized continental drift; hypothesized that continents are slowly moving around the Earth (plate tectonics)
How can a small organism avoid sinking?
increase surface area to volume ratio
Why do fish use countershading?
to avoid predators or to sneak up on prey; saves energy because don't have to swim fast away if can't be seen
Why isn't the deep ocean anoxic?
thermohaline circulation and mixing of seawater
What is a way in which some sharks reproduce asexually?
Does ocean acidification affect salinity?
What is released during the ocean acidification process than lowers the seawater pH?
What is a spiracle?
a breathing hole (used for respiration)
Ocean acidification decreases _______ in shellfish, (increases/decreases) primary productivity, and interferes with ______ abilities.
calcification, increases, homing
Hemoglobin a protein found in the _______ of animals and myoglobin is a protein found in the _______ of animals.
blood, muscle tissue
A type of culture system based on local primary production (i.e. no intentional nutritional inputs)
A parasite whose host is a parasite is a:
Explain the relationship between the Coriolis effect, the Ekman spiral, and Ekman transport.
the Coriolis effect produces water deflections that cause the Ekman spiral which is responsible for Ekman transport
What is maximum sustainable yield?
how much fish can be caught/taken over an indefinite period (without degrading the resource)
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