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the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran

Arabian Peninsula

a peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf


570-632. Born in Mecca, died in Medina. Founder of Islam. Regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God. Teachings make up the Qu'ran, the Muslim holy book.


The sacred book of Islam which contains the word of God as revealed by Muhammad.

Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage

Sunni / Shiite Muslims

Two major branches of Islam; Sunnis, the largest branch, are known as the orthodox branch supporting only descendants of Muhammad whereas Shiites support descendants of Ali as religious leaders


grassland with scattered trees; found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and South America

Gold-Salt Trade

Gold and salt made up trade and wealth in the African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed salt

Ghana, Mali, Songhai

Ghana was land of Gold, great wealthy and powerful by controlling the gold and salt trade, empire fro 700 to 1076 Mail was where Mansa Musa he made a pilgrimage when he made Mecca and huge empire Songhai, conquered Mail and gained control of the Trade Routs, Trading kingdoms in Africa. Used routes through Sahara. Gold and salt.

Mansa Musa

Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)


a city in central Mali near the Niger river

Ibn Battuta

a Muslim traveler and historian who visited Timbuktu and was very impressed

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