Bespoke Education SAT2 Biology - Organismal Biology

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Abscisic Acid
A plant hormone that generally acts to inhibit growth, promote dormancy, and help the plant tolerate stressful conditions
Acetylcholine
A prominent neurotransmitter; stimulates muscle cells
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that regulates the function of the adrenal cortex
Actin
A contractile protein of muscle
Active Immunity
Immunity conferred by recovering from exposure to an antigen and creating memory B cells
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
A hormone synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary gland that promotes retention of water
Adrenal Glands
Endocrine glands located above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, and adrenocorticoids
Agglutination
Clumping of red blood cells or bacteria
Aldosterone
A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that regulates salt and water balance
Alveoli
The dead-end air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs
Ammonia
The form in which many animals excrete nitrogen
Amylase
A digestive enzyme secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth that breaks down starch
Angiosperms
Flowering plants
Anther
The site of pollen production and release in a flower
Antibody
An antigen-binding protein, produced by plasma B-cells, that functions in an immune response
Antigen
A molecule that provokes an immune response
Aorta
The artery that carries oxygenated blood away from heart
Arteriole
One of the small terminal branches of an artery, especially one that connects with a capillary
Artery
A thick vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Auxins
A class of plant hormones that stimulate primary growth and tropisms
AV (Atrioventricular) Node
A patch of nodal tissue at the base of the wall separating the two atria that relays the signal from the SA node to the ventricles
Axon
A long extension from a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body towards target cells
Bicarbonate/Carbonic Acid
The form in which carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream to the lungs; also acts as a pH buffer
Bile
An emulsifying fluid, stored in the gallbladder, that aids in the mechanical digestion of fats
Binary Fission
The type of asexual reproduction used by prokaryotic organisms
Blastula
The stage of embryonic development in animals with two layers of cells and a large central cavity
Bolus
A mass of chewed food
Budding
The type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops while still attached to the parent; used by yeast and hydra
Calcitonin
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that lowers the blood calcium level
Cambium
Plant tissue responsible for secondary (lateral) growth; produces xylem and phloem (vascular cambium) or cork (cork cambium)
Capillary
A small blood vessel that allows nutrient exchange with its surroundings
Cartilage
A type of flexible connective tissue found the nose and ears of humans; composes the skeleton of cartilaginous fish
Cerebellum
The part of the vertebrate brain that functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance
Cerebrum
The part of the vertebrate brain that is the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex functions of the central nervous system
Cervix
The neck of the uterus, which opens into the vagina
Chyme
A mixture of recently swallowed partially digested food and gastric juices
Cochlea
The complex, coiled organ of hearing within the ear
Collenchyma
A flexible plant cell type that supports growing parts
Conditioning
A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to associate a desired behavior with a previously unrelated stimulus
Cornea
The transparent coating of the eye that admits light
Corpus Callosum
Bundle of nerves connecting the left and right sides of the brain
Cortex
Plant tissue between the epidermis and vascular tissue
Cotyledon
The one (monocot) or two (dicot) seed leaves of an angiosperm embryo
Crop
A digestive organ used for food storage prior to digestion
Cytokinins
A class of plant hormones that affect root growth and differentiation, stimulate cell division and growth, germination, and flowering
Cytotoxic T-Cells
A type of lymphocyte that attacks body cells infected with pathogens; also called killer T cells
Dendrite
A short, highly branched extension of a neuron that conveys nerve impulses toward the cell body
Depolarization
An electrical state in an excitable cell whereby the inside of the cell is made less negative relative to the outside than at the resting membrane potential
Diaphragm
The muscle responsible for inflating and deflating the lungs
Duodenum
The first section of the small intestine
Ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye
Endoderm
The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract
Endorphin
A hormone produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception
Endosperm
Tissue in plant seeds that nourishes the developing embryo
Endothelium
The innermost layer of cells lining the blood vessels
Epidermis
The outer covering of plants and animals
Epididymis
Convoluted tubule connecting the seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens; site of maturation and storage of sperm
Epiglottis
A cartilaginous flap that blocks the top of the larynx during swallowing, which prevents the entry of food or fluid into the respiratory system
Epinephrine
A hormone produced as a response to stress; also called adrenaline
Epithelium
Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities
Erythrocyte
A red blood cell; biconcave in shape, contains hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen; lack nuclei in mammals
Estrogen
The female steroid sex hormone, produced in the ovaries, that stimulates the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics
Ethylene Gas
The only gaseous plant hormone; responsible for fruit ripening
Exoskeleton
A hard shell on the surface of an animal that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles; composed of chitin in arthropods
Fallopian Tube
The tube that conveys egg cells away from an ovary; also called an oviduct
Fertilization
The union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell, producing a zygote
Filament
The stalk that supports the anther in a flower
Fixed-Action Pattern
A behavior that continues to completion even if the stimulus is removed
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates development of the follicle
Gametophyte
The multicellular haploid form in plants undergoing alternation of generations; mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
Ganglion
A cluster of nerve cell bodies
Gastrula
The embryonic stage resulting from gastrulation in animal development, commonly made up of three layers of cells: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Germination
Growth of a plant from a seed
Gibberellins
A class of plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and help to stimulate fruit development
Gizzard
A digestive organ used for mechanical digestion
Glomerulus
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney
Glucagon
A hormone secreted by the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels
Gravitropism
Plant growth with (positive) or against (negative) gravity
Growth Hormone
A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates growth and cell division
Gymnosperms
Plants that have seeds and vascular tissue, but no flowers
Habituation
The loss of sensitivity to non-harmful stimuli
Helper T-cell
A type of T cell that is required by some B cells to help them make antibodies or that helps other T cells respond to antigens or secrete lymphokines or interleukins
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen
Histamine
A substance released by injured cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and become leaky
Homeostasis
The ability of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes
Hormone
A chemical formed in specialized cells in all multicellular organisms that travel in body fluids and coordinate the various parts of the organism by interacting with target cells
Hypothalamus
An endocrine gland in the brain that functions in maintaining homeostasis and coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems
Imprinting
A type of learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited critical period
Insulin
A hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers blood glucose levels
Interneuron
A nerve cell within the central nervous system that forms synapses with sensory and motor neurons and integrates sensory input and motor output
Interstitial Fluid
The fluid filling the spaces between cells in multicellular animals
Iris
The colored part of the eye that, by changing size, regulates the amount of light entering the pupil
Larynx
An organ in the neck involved in sound production
Lens
The portion of the eye that focuses light onto the retina
Leukocyte
A white blood cell; involved in the immune response
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation
Ligament
A type of fibrous connective tissue that joins bones together at joints
Liver
An organ that synthesizes bile, stores glycogen, and detoxifes alcohol
Loop of Henle
The portion of the nephron that descends from the renal cortex to the renal medulla, and then ascends back to the renal cortex
Lymph
Interstitial fluid that is returned to the bloodstream through lymphatic vessels
Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell; a T-cell or a B-cell
Macrophage
A cell that engulfs bacteria, dead cells and other debris by phagocytosis
Malphigian Tubules
A unique excretory organ of insects that removes nitrogenous wastes from the blood and empties into the digestive tract
Mammary Glands
Milk-secreting glands characteristic of mammals
Medulla Oblongata
The part of the vertebrate brain that controls autonomic, homeostatic functions
Memory B-Cell
A long-lived lymphocyte formed during the primary immune response that remains in a lymph node until activated by exposure to the same antigen that triggered its formation
Meristem
Plant tissue that is responsible for growth of the plant
Mesoderm
The middle primary germ layer of an early embryo that develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system
Mesophyll
The tissue of a leaf that is specialized for photosynthesis
Metamorphosis
The transformation of an animal larva into a sexually mature adult
Micropyle
A minute opening in the ovule of a seed plant through which the pollen tube usually enters
Mimicry
One species mimics a characteristic of another species to deter predators
Morula
The stage of embryonic development in animals produced by the rapid cell division of the zygote with virtually no growth
Myelin
A fatty material that forms an insulating coat around a neuron
Myosin
A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause muscle contraction
Nephridia
A tubular excretory organ in many invertebrates, such as mollusks and annelids
Nephron
The functional unit of the kidney
Neuromuscular Junction
The junction of an efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fiber plasma membrane
Neurotransmitter
A chemical messenger released from a nerve cell that stimulates another cell
Nodes of Ranvier
The small gaps in the myelin sheath along the axon of a neuron; contain a high concentration of voltage-gated ion channels
Norepinephrine
A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that causes vasoconstriction and increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar; also known as noradrenaline
Olfactory
Relating to the sense of smell
Oocyte
A cell from which an egg or ovum develops by meiosis; a female gametocyte
Oogenesis
The process in the ovary that results in the production of female gametes
Ovary
In animals, the female gonad, which produces egg cells and reproductive hormones; In flowering plants, the portion of a flower in which the egg-containing ovules develop
Oviduct
The tube that conveys egg cells away from an ovary; also called a fallopian tube
Ovule
A structure that develops in the plant ovary and contains the female gametophyte
Oxytocin
A hormone produced in the hypothalamus that stimulates contractions during labor
Palisade Cells
Closely packed mesophyll cells in plant leaves
Pancreas
An organ that produces digestive enzymes, as well as insulin and glucagon
Parenchyma
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that functions in metabolism, photosynthesis, food storage, and respiration and may develop into more differentiated cell types
Parthenogenesis
A form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual
Passive Immunity
Temporary immunity obtained by acquiring antibodies without a primary immune response
Pathogen
A disease-causing organism, virus, or particle
Pepsin
A digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins
Peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of contraction of smooth muscle that push food along the digestive tract
Pharynx
An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross
Pheromone
A volatile chemical signal that functions in communication between animals
Phloem
The portion of the vascular system in plants consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
Photoperiodism
A physiological response to day length, such as flowering in plants
Phototropism
The bending of a plant towards light
Pistil
The female portion of a flower
Pith
The core of the central vascular cylinder of monocot roots, consisting of parenchyma cells; tissue interior to vascular bundles in dicot stems
Pituitary
An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus that secretes hormones produced by the hypothalamus as well as those produced in the pituitary gland
Placenta
A temporary organ in female placental mammals during pregnancy that mediates exchange of materials between the mother and the developing fetus
Plasma
The liquid component of blood
Plasma B-Cell
An antibody-secreting lymphocyte
Plasmodesmata
Pores connecting adjacent plant cells
Platelets
Small blood cells lacking nuclei that are important in blood clotting
Precipitation
The removal of dissolved pathogens from solution by antibodies in the blood
Progesterone
A steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and by the placenta, which maintains the uterine lining during pregnancy
Prolactin
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates mammary gland growth and milk synthesis in mammals
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone; a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that raises the blood calcium level
Pulmonary
Referring to the lungs
Pupil
The opening in the eye that allows light to pass through
Reflex Arc
The route followed by nerve impulses to produce a reflex act, from the periphery through the afferent nerve to the nervous system, and then through the efferent nerve to the effector organ
Retina
The sheet of photoreceptors that coats the back of the eye
SA (Sinoatrial) Node
The pacemaker of the heart, located in the wall of the right atrium
Saliva
A fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth containing water, mucus, and digestive enzymes
Sarcomere
The functional unit of skeletal muscle, consisting of actin and myelin filaments
Sclerenchyma
A rigid, supportive plant cell type possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity
Secretin
A hormone produced in the duodenum (in the crypts of Lieberkuhn) that regulates the release of bicarbonate into the duodenum
Semicircular Canal
Fluid-filled channels in the inner ear that detect changes in the head's rate of rotation or angular movement
Seminiferous Tubules
Highly coiled tubes in the testes in which sperm are produced
Sepal
The set of leaves in angiosperms that encloses and protects the flower bud before it opens
Sessile
Unable to move about; usually permanently attached to a solid substrate of some kind, such as a rock
Sieve-Tube Cells
Living cells without nuclei that conduct phloem in plants
Somatic Nervous System
The branch of the motor division of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system composed of motor neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles
Spermatogenesis
The formation of sperm cells
Sphincter
A ringlike valve in a muscular tube, such as a digestive tract
Spleen
An organ that removes old red blood cells and antibody-coated cells from the circulation
Spongy Cells
Loosely packed mesophyll cells in plant leaves
Sporophyte
The multicellular diploid form in plants undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation
Stamen
The male portion of a flower
Stigma
The part of the flower that receives pollen for fertilization
Stomata
Pores surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allow gas exchange between the external environment and the interior of the plant
Style
The tube that supports the stigma and conveys pollen towards the ovary in a flower
Synapse
The synaptic terminal of an axon, the surface of the cell it stimulates, and the space between them (the synaptic cleft)
Taproot
The main root of a dicot plant, usually stouter than the lateral roots and growing straight downward from the stem
Taxis
A movement toward or away from a stimulus
Tendon
A type of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Testosterone
The male steroid hormone, produced in the testes, that stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics
Thigmotropism
Plant growth towards contact
Thyroid
An endocrine gland in the neck that secretes thyroxine and calcitonin
Thyroxine
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism in virtually all body tissues
Trachea
A cartilage-lined tube that conveys air to and from the lungs
Tracheid Cells
Water-conducting and supportive elements of xylem
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that regulates the function of the thyroid gland
Tympanic Membrane
A thin membrane that vibrates in response to sound energy and transmits the resulting mechanical vibrations to the structures of the middle ear
Urea
A soluble form of nitrogenous waste excreted by mammals and most adult amphibians
Ureter
A duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urethra
A duct that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the outside and, in males, also conveys semen out of the body during ejaculation
Uric Acid
An insoluble nitrogenous waste excreted by insects, lizards, and birds
Urinary Bladder
A pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination
Urine
Concentrated filtrate produced by the kidneys, stored in the urinary bladder, and excreted via the urethra
Uterus
The organ in which the development of young occurs in mammals
Vaccine
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen used to stimulate a host organism's immune system to mount a long-term defense against the pathogen
Vagina
The part of the female reproductive system between the uterus and the outside opening that acts as the birth canal in mammals
Vas Deferens
The tube that conveys sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Vascular System
A system formed by xylem and phloem of a plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients
Vein
A large vessel that carries blood towards the heart
Vena Cava
The two veins (superior and inferior) that convey deoxygenated blood to the heart
Venule
A vessel that carries blood from capillaries to veins
Villi
Fingerlike projections into the lumen of the small intestine containing cells specialized for absorbing nutrients
Vitamin
An organic nutrient that an organism requires in very small quantities that generally functions as a coenzyme
Xylem
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant
Zygote
The diploid cell that results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus
Zymogen
A protein that is an inactive precursor of an enzyme
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