Bespoke Education SAT2 Biology - Classical Genetics

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Albinism
The absence of any pigmentation in a person, animal, or plant, resulting in white hair and pink eyes in mammals
Allele
An alternative form of a gene
Antibiotic
A drug that kills bacteria
Autosomal
Referring to a gene located on a chromosome not involved in the determination of sex
Carrier
An organism that carries one allele for a particular recessive trait
Clone
A lineage of genetically identical individuals
Codominance
A phenotypic situation in which both alleles are expressed in the heterozygote
Conjugation
The transfer of plasmids between two bacteria through a sex pilus
Dihybrid Cross
A cross of two individuals heterozygous for two traits; results in a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
Diploid
Containing two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent
Dominant
The allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
Epistasis
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
F1 Generation
The first generation of offspring in a genetic cross
F2 Generation
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the F1 Generation
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
Gene Linkage
The presence of genes on the same chromosome, which makes those genes more likely to be passed to offspring together
Genotype
The genetic composition of an organism with respect to a specific trait
Hemophilia
A hereditary disorder in which the blood fails to clot normally
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given trait
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given trait
Incomplete Dominance
A type of inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between those of the parents
Independent Assortment
A general rule in inheritance that inheritance of alleles for one trait is independent of inheritance of alleles for another trait
Karyotype
A picture of the complete set of chromosomes for a particular organism
Lysogenic Cycle
The integration of viral DNA into a bacterial genome; the viral DNA remains in the host genome until external stimulus triggers the lytic cycle
Lytic Cycle
Viral DNA in an infected bacterium directs the production of new viral particles, which are then released when the cell lyses
Monohybrid Cross
A cross of two individuals heterozygous for the same trait; results in a 3:1 phenotypic ratio
Phage
A virus that infects bacteria
Phenotype
An expressed trait of an organism
Plasmid
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome
Pleiotropy
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A laboratory technique that creates millions of copies of a piece of DNA
Polyploidy
The possession more than two complete chromosome sets
Recessive
The allele that is not expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
Restriction Enzyme
An enzyme that cuts DNA in predictable places, often leaving an overhang, or "sticky end"
Segregation
A general rule in inheritance that gametes receive only one of the parent's two alleles for a gene
Sex-Influenced
An autosomal trait that is influenced by sex; e.g. baldness
Sex-Linked
A trait located on a chromosome involved in the determination of sex; e.g. color-blindness
Test Cross
A cross carried out between an individual with the dominant phenotype and an individual with the recessive phenotype in order to determine the genotype of the dominant individual
Transformation
The phenomenon in which external genetic material is taken in by a cell
Triploid
Containing three sets of chromosomes
Trisomy
The presence of three, instead of the normal two, homologous chromosomes in an organism
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