Bespoke Education SAT2 Biology - Cell and Molecular Biology

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Activation Energy
The energy required to start a chemical reaction
Amino Acid
An organic molecule possessing one carboxyl, one amino, and one variable group; the monomers of proteins
Anaphase
The stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled apart
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate, the main source of readily usable energy for cells
Calvin Cycle
The chemical synthesis of G3P (a precursor to glucose), using CO2, ATP and NADPH; in the stroma
Cell Plate
Two membranes formed across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
Cellular Respiration
The series of reactions necessary for the production of ATP within a cell
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide that composes the cell walls of plants
Central Vacuole
The organelle in plants that functions in storage and maintenance of turgor
Centrifuge
A device that rotates at various speeds about a fixed central point; separates liquids from solids, or liquids of different densities from each other
Centrioles
Two structures in the center of animal cells that may help organize spindle assembly during cell division
Centromere
The region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined; also the point of attachment of the spindle fibers during cell division
Chemiosmosis
The use of a proton gradient to drive ATP production; an element of both aerobic cellular respiration and photosynthesis
Chitin
A structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods
Chloroplast
An organelle found only in plants and some protists that serves as the site of photosynthesis
Chromatography
Separation of a mixture based on the components' affinities for a medium that they pass through
Chromosomal Inversion
A mutation in which a part of a chromosome is reversed end-to-end
Cilia
Hair-like structures that sway back and forth to facilitate cellular movement or move liquid over the cell surface
Citric Acid Cycle
The chemical breakdown acetyl Co-A to carbon dioxide; supplies most of the NADH molecules that carry energy to the electron transport chain; in the mitochondrial matrix
Cleavage
The pinching of the plasma membrane following mitosis, resulting in the separation of the two daughter cells; also, the succession of rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development
Codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that codes for a particular amino acid or termination signal
Collagen
A protein that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
Contractile Vacuole
An organelle found in freshwater protists that pumps excess water out of the cell
Covalent Bond
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
Cytochrome
An iron-containing protein component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Cytokinesis
The division of cytoplasm between two daughter cells after mitosis, resulting in the formation of two distinct cells
Cytoplasm
Everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
Cytoskeleton
A network of filaments that maintains cell shape and enables intracellular transport, cell movement, and cell division
Cytosol
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical process that covalently bonds two molecules coupled with the removal of water
Denaturation
The process in which a protein unravels and loses its shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive
Desmosome
A structure that binds one cell to another
DNA Ligase
An enzyme that joins two DNA molecules together
DNA Polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain during DNA replication
Electron Transport Chain
A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; in the inner mitochondrial or thylakoid membrane
Electrophoresis
The separation of macromolecules on the basis of their rate of movement through a porous gel under the influence of an electric field
Endergonic
Referring to a reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells that either modifies proteins (rough ER) or synthesizes lipids (smooth ER)
Endosymbiotic Theory
The theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed by other cells
Enzyme
A class of proteins that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed
Exergonic
Referring to a reaction in which free energy is released into the surroundings
Exon
The coding region of a eukaryotic gene that is expressed
FAD
A molecule that carries electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain; the reduced form is FADH2
Fat
A type of lipid composed of one glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached
Fermentation
A cellular process that regenerates the NAD+ used in glycolysis and produces a characteristic byproduct, such as ethanol or lactic acid
Flagellum
A tail-like structure that facilitates cellular movement
Fluid-Mosaic Model
The model of cell membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
Frameshift Mutation
A mutation that results in a shift of the reading frame of the coding portion of a gene resulting from addition or deletion of nucleotides
Gamete
A haploid egg or sperm cell; gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
Gene Amplification
An increase in the number of copies of a specific gene in an organism, leading to the increased production of a corresponding protein
Gibbs Free Energy
The energy difference between the reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Gluconeogenesis
The conversion of non-carbohydrates to glucose
Glycerol
One of the components of a fat, the others usually being fatty acids
Glycogen
The glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals
Glycolysis
The chemical breakdown of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; in the cytoplasm
Golgi Apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies, stores, and routes proteins for secretion
Granum
A stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membranes in a chloroplast
Haploid
Containing only one set of chromosomes
Helicase
The enzyme that separates the two strands of the DNA double helix during replication
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes that possess genes for the same traits at corresponding locations
Hydrogen Bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
Hydrolysis
A chemical process that splits molecules by the addition of water
Hypertonic
Having a higher solute concentration
Hypotonic
Having a lower solute concentration
Interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing
Intron
A noncoding sequence of DNA within a coding region in eukaryotic genes
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionization
The formation of ions
Lactic Acid
The product of fermentation in human muscle cells
Lyse
To undergo the dissolution or destruction of the cell by disruption of the cell membrane
Lysosome
A membrane-enclosed sac found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that functions in digestion
Metaphase
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate
Mitochondrion
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of aerobic cellular respiration
mRNA
Messenger RNA; the type of ribonucleic acid that conveys genetic information to the ribosomes
Mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
NAD
A coenzyme that conveys electrons during the reactions of cellular respiration; the reduced form is NADH
NADP
The electron carrier of the light reactions of photosynthesis; the reduced form is NAPDH
Nondisjunction
An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
Nucleic Acid
The polymer of nucleotide monomers that serves as the genetic material of all organisms
Nucleolus
The region of the nucleus where ribosomes are made
Nucleotide
The monomer of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
Nucleus
The DNA-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell
Organic Matter
Matter composed of carbon and hydrogen
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC)
A complex of enzymes that convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Peptide
A molecule composed of amino acids
Peptide Bond
The covalent bond between two amino acids
Phagocytosis
A type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm
Phospholipid Bilayer
A membrane consisting of two layers of phospholipids
Phosphorylation
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule
Photon
The smallest allowable quantity of light energy
Photosynthesis
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugar compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain protists
Pinocytosis
A type of endocytosis whereby a cell indiscriminately takes in liquid from the outside environment
Plasmolysis
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment
Point Mutation
A mutation in which one base is substituted for another
Polypeptide
A chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
Prophase
The stage of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope dissolves, chromatin condenses, the nucleolus disappears, and the spindle fibers form
Pseudopod
A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
Quaternary Structure
The interaction of separate polypeptides to form a protein
Redox Reaction
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to the other
Reduction
Gain of electrons
Respirometer
A device that measures the rate of respiration in a system by measuring the rate of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Reverse Transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
Ribosome
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
RNA Polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
rRNA
Ribosomal RNA; the type of ribonucleic acid that, together with proteins, makes up ribosomes
Saccharide
A class of molecules composed of varying numbers of simple sugars covalently bonded together
Secondary Structure
The shapes of small portions of a polypeptide
Serial Dilution
The dilution of a substance at several different concentrations
Solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent
The dissolving agent of a solution
Spectrometry
Analysis of light with respect to its wavelength and intensity
Starch
The energy storage polysaccharide found in plants
Steroid
A type of lipid derived from cholesterol composed of four fused carbon rings
Stop Codon
Codon that signals ribosomes to terminate protein synthesis
Stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane
Substrate
The substance on which an enzyme acts
Synapsis
The pairing of and exchange of material between replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; also known as crossing over
Synthesis
Formation of a compound from simpler compounds or elements
Telophase
The stage of mitosis in which two distinct nuclear envelopes appear, chromosomes become chromatin, nucleoli appear, and the spindle fibers disappear
Tertiary Structure
The shape of an entire polypeptide
Thylakoid
The disk-shaped membranous sacs inside the chloroplast; contain chlorophyll and the enzymes of the light reactions of photosynthesis
Tight Junction
The area of two cells where they join together to prevent the passage of fluid between them
Translocation
The movement of mRNA through the ribosome during translation; also, a mutation in which part of a chromosome moves to a non-homologous chromosome
tRNA
Transfer RNA; the type of ribonucleic acid that conveys amino acids to the ribosomes
Turgor
The firmed state of a walled cell as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment
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