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Environmental Ch. 12

Acid Rain (Acid Precipitation)
precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids
Air Pollution
when harmful substances build up in the air to unhealthy levels, air pollutants can be solids, liquids, or gases
Primary Pollutants
pollutants put directly into the air by human activity
Secondary Pollutants
form when a primary pollutant comes into contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances and a chemical reaction takes place
results from chemical reactions that involve sunlight, air, auto exhaust, and ozone
Short term effects of air pollution
headache, nausea, irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, tightness in the chest, coughing, upper respiratory infections, may worsen asthma and emphysema
Long term effects of air pollution
Emphysema, lung cancer, heart disease, may damage lungs of children
Sick-building syndrome
condition when buildings have very poor air quality
includes several minerals that form in long, thin fibers and are valued for their strength & resistance to heat
Noise Pollution
-affects human health and quality of life
-airplanes, city traffic, home appliances etc.
-heath problems include loss of hearing, high blood pressure, stress, loss of sleep
Light Pollution
-Inefficient lighting leads to energy waste
-fix:billboards lit from about shooting down
Why is smog so common in LA?
Warm and sunny= great environment for trapping and forming air pollutants. Built in a valley surrounded by mountains. Air is trapped off by this natural bowl. When the air higher up is warmer than the air closer to the ground, the warm air acts as a lid that keeps pollutants in.
pH 1-5
pH 8-14
Acid Shock
acidic snow melts and rushes into lakes causing rapid change in pH
Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement
(pollutants released in US end up in Canada)
-acid rain that falls in southeastern Canada often comes from pollution produced in US
-both countries agreed to reduce acidic emissions that flowed across the Canada-US boundary
Acid Rain Effects
-Toxic metals (Al+Hg) released into environment (poison to humans)
-lead to increase in respiratory problems in children
-decrease in fish number
-can dissolve calcium carbonate in building materials
Most polluted cities in the WORLD
Ahwaz, Iran
Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Sanagaj, India
Ludhiana, India
Queetta, Pakistan
What %s make up clean air
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
(only important ones)
SO2 & NO come from
Fossil Fuels
Sources of pollution (man made & natural)
household products, power plants, motor vehicles (CO, NO, VOCs)
coal burning power plants
Particulate Matter-vehicles, incinerators, power plants, mining, wood-burning fireplaces
natural pollution (volcano)
Causes Smog
Car exhaust
Asbestos, Radon, & Ozone- causes & effects
Radon gas- lung cancer
Asbestos-damage lungs cause trouble breathing
Ozone-skin cancer
ID as primary or secondary pollutant
acid rain
Ground level Ozone
acid rain- secondary
CO- Primary
Ground Level Ozone- secondary
How does acid rain form, where does it come from? Causes? (in a diagram)
Most Air polluted city in the world & country (top 3)?
world- Ahwaz, Iran
US-1.) Bakersfield, Calif
2.) Fresno, Calif
3.) Riverside, Calif
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.