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121 terms

LC Biology Plant Cell, tissue,

plant cell
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Nucleus
controls center of the cell-
direct all of the cells activites
The brain
chromatin
strands of genetic material in the nucleus
Nucleolus
small round object in the nucleus, makes ribosomes
cytoplasm
thick jelly like fluid,
Region between the cell membrane and nucleus
mitochondria
produce energy for the cell
powerhouse of the cell,
Cell wall
thick nonliving material that surrounds the plant cell,
shapes and supports a plant cell
cell membrane
Outside boundary in animal cell
controls what goes into and out of the cell.
Also called the gate keeper.
Endoplasmic Reticulum( E.R)
The "passageways ( highways)" in the cell,
carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
Ribosomes
Factories to produce proteins
small structures on E.R and in the cytoplasm
Golgi Bodies
flattened sacs and tubes
receive proteins and other newly formed material
distribute them to other parts of the cell
Chloroplasts
found in plant cells mostly, some plant like organisms have them too
capture sunlight to make food for the plants
vacuoles
Storage area of the cell
stores food, water, other material, and waste products
lysosomes
small round structures
break down large food particles into smaller ones
Organelle
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions in the cell
Nucleus
Information DNA is transribed in RNA synthesis, specifies cell proteins
Nucleolus
Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis, where rRNA is synthesised
Nuclear envelope
contain genes
Chromatin
Organized into chromosomes. Formed by DNA and proteins
Plasma Membrane
Encloses cell contents, regulate movement of material in and out, maintains cell share communicate with other cells
Smooth ER (endoplasmic enticulum)
Lipid synthesis, drug detoxification(usually extensive in liver cells of drug addicts). Ca2+ storage
Rought ER
manufactures proteins(site of glycoprotein synthesis)
Ribosomes
synthesized polypeptides in both prokaryotes and eykaryotes
Golgi apparatus
Modifies proteins, packages secreted proteins, sorts other proteins to vacuoles and other organelles
Lysosomes
buds off of Golgi; contains hydrolytic enzymes
Vacuoles
Store materials, wastes, water, maintains hydrostatic pressure (fill mostly with water)
Mitochrondria
has double membrane; cellular respiration produces ATP here
Chloroplasts
the organelles of photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton
Provides structural support and helps with cell movement, transporting materials in the cell
Centrioles
mitotic spindle forms between centrioles during animal cell division
Cilia (short)/ Flagella (long)
cell movement and locomotion
organization
the high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
cell
the smallest unit that can perform all life's processes
unicellular
made up of one cell
multicellular
multiple cells
organ
a structure that carries out specialized jobs within an organ system leaf or flower in plant shoot system
tissues
groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function eg, vascular tissue in plants
organelles
tiny structures in cytoplasm that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive eg mitochondria
Photosynthesis
during this process molecules of glucose are built using sunlight water and carbon dioxide using chlorophyll
Glucose
this is important to all animal and plant cells because it contains much energy component of starch
Chromoplast
these organelles produce various brightly colored pigments and are found primarily in cells of flowers, fruits, and berries.
Leucoplasts
these organelles produce starch and are found mainly in the cells of a plants' roots
starch
a molecule of this is composed of many glucose molecules attached to each other.
Primary Cell Wall
this is a fairly strong wall the cell builds around itself as soon as it is created. this wall is compsed of cellulose
cellulose
a very strong chemical that makes up the walls of a plant cell
Secondary Cell Wall
this is an extremely strong wall that a cell builds around itself as soon as the cell has grown to its adult size. it is quite thick and is composed of cellulose
Middle Lamellae
this is the space found in between one plant cell and a neighboring plant cell. It is not an empty space but is filled with a very strong "adhesive" called pectin.
Pectin
this attaches a plant cell tightly to its neighbors
vacuoles
these organelles are actually tiny packages which contain large numbers of organic molecules that are being transprted around within the cell. they serve as "delivery trucks" for the cell surrounded by tonoplast
lysosomes
these organelles contain acids and powerful anzymes that can destroy any invader that enters the cell. when a cell dies these rupture open and decompose every organelle within the cell
microtubules
these are long, strong protein fibers that are layed out in all directions within the cell's cytoplasm. they serve as the cells own tiny skeleton. they give the cell it's shape and provide the cell with some strength
centrioles
a cell has two of these and they are always located next to the nucleus in animal cells. they help the cell divide in two.
cell organelles
tiny structures found inside a cell that are responsible for performing all of the activities that occer inside the cell
mitochondria
theses are sometimes called the "power-houses" of the cell. they produce mose of the energy that powers all of the othe cell organelles
nucleus
this organelle controls all of the actibities that ovver inside the cell. it is often thought of as the "brain" of the cell. it controls all of the other cell organelles
cytoplasm
this is the fluid found inside the cell. this fluid consists mainly of water in which are dissolved all of the organic molecules the cell needs
cell membrane
or plasmalemma this is a barrier that completely surrounds the cell. it separates the cytoplasm inside the cell from the extracellular fluid outside the cell
ribosomes
these organelles are shaped like a "snowman" and are responsibel for building protein molecules for the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
these are narrow tubes that course through the cell. proteins are transported to different parts of the cell through these tubes.
Golgi Apparatus
organic molecules produced by a cell are carried to this organelle where a code is attached to them this "zip code" indicates where inside the cell each organic molecule should be delivered. it is often called the cell's "post office"
endoplasmic reticulum
lipid and glycogen molecules are made inside the "ER". toxic waste molecules that the cell produces are destroyed in "ER"
parenchyma cell
Flexible, thin-walled, spherical cells that perform a wide range of functions in plants mostly storage can be photosynthetic.
collenchyma cell
Plant cells that are elongated and occur in long strands or cylinders that provide support for surrounding cells.
sclerenchyma cell
Plant cells that lack cytoplasm when they mature, but retain their thick, cell walls.
meristems
Regions of rapidly dividing cells
vascular cambium
A thin cylinder of meristematic tissue that can run the entire length of roots and stems.
cork cambium
Produces cells that develop tough cell walls that form a protective outside layer on stems and roots.
epidermis
The layer of cells that makes up the outer covering on a plant.
guard cells
The two cells that form a stoma.
xylem
The water-carrying vascular tissue that is composed of vessel element and tracheid cells.
vessel elements
Cells in the xylem tissue that are tubular and stacked end to end forming long strands.
tracheids
Long, tapered cells in the xylem that have pitted ends.
phloem
The main food-carrying tissue in vascular plants.
sieve tube members
Cells in the phloem tissue that lack a nucleus, but are long and cylindrical for conducting sugar water.
companian cells
Cells in the phloem tissue that have a nucleus and assist the sieve tube members.
ground tissues
Consist of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells and have diverse functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and support.
Cell wall
thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. Composed of microfibrils, glucose, cellulose and pectin
plasmodesmata
the formation of connections between adjacent cells for specialized cell-cell communication via pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are continuous. Allows for direct flow of small molecules such as sugars and ions between cells
Primary cell wall
composed of cellulose microfibrils aligned in all angels
Secondary wall
between the plant cell and primary wall, microfibrils are aligned mostly in the same direction - forms rigid 3D structure
tugur pressure
internal hydrostatic pressure keeps plants upright preventing wilting
plasmolysis
is the process in a plant cell where the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water through osmosis this decreases the protoplast volume, causing wilting, decreasing tugur pressure resulting in welting of the plant
Plasma membrane
the thick layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell from the inside creating a selectively permeable membrane
Nucleolus
inside the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is produced
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
located in the cell's cytoplasm transports newly made proteins to the Golgi body membranes. It contains enzymes and produces and digest lipids and membrane proteins
Mitochondria (internal part)
inner membrane is called the matrix this is the site for oxidative respiration
Plastids
these are involved in photosynthesis, some form is in every plant
Leucoplast
a category of plastids lacking pigmentation, located in a plants root and non-photosynthetic. They provide a wide range of biosynthetic functions, synthesis of fatty acids and many amino acids
Amyoplasts
specialized leucoplast used for bulk storage of starch, lipids or proteins
Chloroplast
an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. They are composed of thylakoid disks, this is were P/S takes place
Ganum
stack of thylakoid disks
Stroma
part of the chloroplast in plant cells in the inner membrane. It is the thick solution of enzymes around the thylakoids
Vacuole
a large membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. They help maintain shape of the cell store nutrients, dump waste and create an osmotic gradient affecting tugur
Lysosomes
waste removal. They contain enzymes that break down nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates
Why is it important that the xylem is composed of tracheids and vessel elements?
because maturation= death, there are no membranes or organelles left creating a hallow lignified tube great for large water transfer
Tracheids:
located in the xylem long spindle shaped cells that arrange themselves in overlapping verticals filed lines which water can flow laterally between pit paris
Pit membrane:
porous layer in the xylem tracheids between the 2 pit pairs composed of 2 primary walls and a middle lamella.
Why are pit membranes important in water flow?
they help to prevent the spreading of gas bubbles within the xylem
Meristem:
area of dividing cells, soul source of cells and tissue
What are the 3 tissue systems that every plant can be divided into?
ground, vascular and dermal
What three different types of cells make up simple tissue?
parenchyma, collenchyma and sclermcyma cells
Parenchyma cells:
simple tissue cells involved in respiration P/S, storage and secretion. located in parenchyma tissue included in teh cortex of stems and roots, piths of stems, leaf mesophyll and they aggregate with other types of cells to form complex tissue
Collenchyma cells
contain an irregularly thickened primary cell wall, these cells are located inside the epidermis in the stems and petiols, they support young leaf and stem tissue and petioles, they are living at maturity and often have chloroplast
Scleremcyma:
composed of dead cells with extremely thick cell walls, supporting element in parts of the plant, broken into two types, fibers and Sclerids
Fibers
type of scleremcyna cell that is long narrow and pitted with tapered ends, they may connect end to end or be individual cells, high load bearing capacity
sclerids:
type of sclermcyma cell, they are in small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers, they are in many shapes and include cores of apples and the gritty texture of pears
Vascular system:
interconnected network of cells spanning the entire plant body. Primary components are the xyelm and phloem, transport water, mineral and sugars for the plant
Primary Xylem:
formed at root and shoot apex early in development, they form vascular bundles in leaves and young stems
Secondary xylem:
formed later in development found in both shoots and roots
Phloem, primary and secondary
transports or imports sugar through out the plant made during P/S primary in vascular bundles near xylem, secondary outside 2ndary xylem
What three cells compose the phloem?
sieve tube members, companion cells main ones and parenchyma cells for packing
Sieve tube:
part of the phloem an elongated rank of individual cells arranged end to end forming a tube that conducts food material throughout the plant
Companion cells:
part of phloem lie connected to sieve tube members at maturity, they help load and unload phloem - surround guard cells making them contract or close
Epidermis:
made of complex tissue generally one cell thick, they have no chloroplast living at majority, enlongated irregular contours on their cell walls which are covered in cutin
Cutin:
waxy substance of epidermis that forms the cuticle keeping water in and out, it covers all the plant except the root tip and shoot apex
Guard cells:
do not contain chloroplast, two come together to form opening for gas exchange
Periderm:
several layers thick, secondary tissue type, forms layer of protection in older stems and roots, formed after the younger epidermis is split and lost. Ex bark of a tree trunk
___________responsible for elongation of roots and stems
apical meristem
lateral meristems
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
lenticels
A small raised area in the bark of stems and roots that enables gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
root system
All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.
shoot system
all the parts of a vascular plant exclusive of the root; normally above-ground, consisting of stem, leaves, buds, and reproductive organs,cones, or flowers and fruits; functions include photosynthesis, transport of materials, reproduction, and hormone synthesis

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