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plant cell


controls center of the cell-
direct all of the cells activites
The brain


strands of genetic material in the nucleus


small round object in the nucleus, makes ribosomes


thick jelly like fluid,
Region between the cell membrane and nucleus


produce energy for the cell
powerhouse of the cell,

Cell wall

thick nonliving material that surrounds the plant cell,
shapes and supports a plant cell

cell membrane

Outside boundary in animal cell
controls what goes into and out of the cell.
Also called the gate keeper.

Endoplasmic Reticulum( E.R)

The "passageways ( highways)" in the cell,
carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another


Factories to produce proteins
small structures on E.R and in the cytoplasm

Golgi Bodies

flattened sacs and tubes
receive proteins and other newly formed material
distribute them to other parts of the cell


found in plant cells mostly, some plant like organisms have them too
capture sunlight to make food for the plants


Storage area of the cell
stores food, water, other material, and waste products


small round structures
break down large food particles into smaller ones


tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions in the cell


Information DNA is transribed in RNA synthesis, specifies cell proteins


Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis, where rRNA is synthesised

Nuclear envelope

contain genes


Organized into chromosomes. Formed by DNA and proteins

Plasma Membrane

Encloses cell contents, regulate movement of material in and out, maintains cell share communicate with other cells

Smooth ER (endoplasmic enticulum)

Lipid synthesis, drug detoxification(usually extensive in liver cells of drug addicts). Ca2+ storage

Rought ER

manufactures proteins(site of glycoprotein synthesis)


synthesized polypeptides in both prokaryotes and eykaryotes

Golgi apparatus

Modifies proteins, packages secreted proteins, sorts other proteins to vacuoles and other organelles


buds off of Golgi; contains hydrolytic enzymes


Store materials, wastes, water, maintains hydrostatic pressure (fill mostly with water)


has double membrane; cellular respiration produces ATP here


the organelles of photosynthesis


Provides structural support and helps with cell movement, transporting materials in the cell


mitotic spindle forms between centrioles during animal cell division

Cilia (short)/ Flagella (long)

cell movement and locomotion


the high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world


the smallest unit that can perform all life's processes


made up of one cell


multiple cells


a structure that carries out specialized jobs within an organ system leaf or flower in plant shoot system


groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function eg, vascular tissue in plants


tiny structures in cytoplasm that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive eg mitochondria


during this process molecules of glucose are built using sunlight water and carbon dioxide using chlorophyll


this is important to all animal and plant cells because it contains much energy component of starch


these organelles produce various brightly colored pigments and are found primarily in cells of flowers, fruits, and berries.


these organelles produce starch and are found mainly in the cells of a plants' roots


a molecule of this is composed of many glucose molecules attached to each other.

Primary Cell Wall

this is a fairly strong wall the cell builds around itself as soon as it is created. this wall is compsed of cellulose


a very strong chemical that makes up the walls of a plant cell

Secondary Cell Wall

this is an extremely strong wall that a cell builds around itself as soon as the cell has grown to its adult size. it is quite thick and is composed of cellulose

Middle Lamellae

this is the space found in between one plant cell and a neighboring plant cell. It is not an empty space but is filled with a very strong "adhesive" called pectin.


this attaches a plant cell tightly to its neighbors


these organelles are actually tiny packages which contain large numbers of organic molecules that are being transprted around within the cell. they serve as "delivery trucks" for the cell surrounded by tonoplast


these organelles contain acids and powerful anzymes that can destroy any invader that enters the cell. when a cell dies these rupture open and decompose every organelle within the cell


these are long, strong protein fibers that are layed out in all directions within the cell's cytoplasm. they serve as the cells own tiny skeleton. they give the cell it's shape and provide the cell with some strength


a cell has two of these and they are always located next to the nucleus in animal cells. they help the cell divide in two.

cell organelles

tiny structures found inside a cell that are responsible for performing all of the activities that occer inside the cell


theses are sometimes called the "power-houses" of the cell. they produce mose of the energy that powers all of the othe cell organelles


this organelle controls all of the actibities that ovver inside the cell. it is often thought of as the "brain" of the cell. it controls all of the other cell organelles


this is the fluid found inside the cell. this fluid consists mainly of water in which are dissolved all of the organic molecules the cell needs

cell membrane

or plasmalemma this is a barrier that completely surrounds the cell. it separates the cytoplasm inside the cell from the extracellular fluid outside the cell


these organelles are shaped like a "snowman" and are responsibel for building protein molecules for the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

these are narrow tubes that course through the cell. proteins are transported to different parts of the cell through these tubes.

Golgi Apparatus

organic molecules produced by a cell are carried to this organelle where a code is attached to them this "zip code" indicates where inside the cell each organic molecule should be delivered. it is often called the cell's "post office"

endoplasmic reticulum

lipid and glycogen molecules are made inside the "ER". toxic waste molecules that the cell produces are destroyed in "ER"

parenchyma cell

Flexible, thin-walled, spherical cells that perform a wide range of functions in plants mostly storage can be photosynthetic.

collenchyma cell

Plant cells that are elongated and occur in long strands or cylinders that provide support for surrounding cells.

sclerenchyma cell

Plant cells that lack cytoplasm when they mature, but retain their thick, cell walls.


Regions of rapidly dividing cells

vascular cambium

A thin cylinder of meristematic tissue that can run the entire length of roots and stems.

cork cambium

Produces cells that develop tough cell walls that form a protective outside layer on stems and roots.


The layer of cells that makes up the outer covering on a plant.

guard cells

The two cells that form a stoma.


The water-carrying vascular tissue that is composed of vessel element and tracheid cells.

vessel elements

Cells in the xylem tissue that are tubular and stacked end to end forming long strands.


Long, tapered cells in the xylem that have pitted ends.


The main food-carrying tissue in vascular plants.

sieve tube members

Cells in the phloem tissue that lack a nucleus, but are long and cylindrical for conducting sugar water.

companian cells

Cells in the phloem tissue that have a nucleus and assist the sieve tube members.

ground tissues

Consist of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells and have diverse functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and support.

Cell wall

thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. Composed of microfibrils, glucose, cellulose and pectin


the formation of connections between adjacent cells for specialized cell-cell communication via pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are continuous. Allows for direct flow of small molecules such as sugars and ions between cells

Primary cell wall

composed of cellulose microfibrils aligned in all angels

Secondary wall

between the plant cell and primary wall, microfibrils are aligned mostly in the same direction - forms rigid 3D structure

tugur pressure

internal hydrostatic pressure keeps plants upright preventing wilting


is the process in a plant cell where the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water through osmosis this decreases the protoplast volume, causing wilting, decreasing tugur pressure resulting in welting of the plant

Plasma membrane

the thick layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell from the inside creating a selectively permeable membrane


inside the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is produced

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

located in the cell's cytoplasm transports newly made proteins to the Golgi body membranes. It contains enzymes and produces and digest lipids and membrane proteins

Mitochondria (internal part)

inner membrane is called the matrix this is the site for oxidative respiration


these are involved in photosynthesis, some form is in every plant


a category of plastids lacking pigmentation, located in a plants root and non-photosynthetic. They provide a wide range of biosynthetic functions, synthesis of fatty acids and many amino acids


specialized leucoplast used for bulk storage of starch, lipids or proteins


an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. They are composed of thylakoid disks, this is were P/S takes place


stack of thylakoid disks


part of the chloroplast in plant cells in the inner membrane. It is the thick solution of enzymes around the thylakoids


a large membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. They help maintain shape of the cell store nutrients, dump waste and create an osmotic gradient affecting tugur


waste removal. They contain enzymes that break down nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates

Why is it important that the xylem is composed of tracheids and vessel elements?

because maturation= death, there are no membranes or organelles left creating a hallow lignified tube great for large water transfer


located in the xylem long spindle shaped cells that arrange themselves in overlapping verticals filed lines which water can flow laterally between pit paris

Pit membrane:

porous layer in the xylem tracheids between the 2 pit pairs composed of 2 primary walls and a middle lamella.

Why are pit membranes important in water flow?

they help to prevent the spreading of gas bubbles within the xylem


area of dividing cells, soul source of cells and tissue

What are the 3 tissue systems that every plant can be divided into?

ground, vascular and dermal

What three different types of cells make up simple tissue?

parenchyma, collenchyma and sclermcyma cells

Parenchyma cells:

simple tissue cells involved in respiration P/S, storage and secretion. located in parenchyma tissue included in teh cortex of stems and roots, piths of stems, leaf mesophyll and they aggregate with other types of cells to form complex tissue

Collenchyma cells

contain an irregularly thickened primary cell wall, these cells are located inside the epidermis in the stems and petiols, they support young leaf and stem tissue and petioles, they are living at maturity and often have chloroplast


composed of dead cells with extremely thick cell walls, supporting element in parts of the plant, broken into two types, fibers and Sclerids


type of scleremcyna cell that is long narrow and pitted with tapered ends, they may connect end to end or be individual cells, high load bearing capacity


type of sclermcyma cell, they are in small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers, they are in many shapes and include cores of apples and the gritty texture of pears

Vascular system:

interconnected network of cells spanning the entire plant body. Primary components are the xyelm and phloem, transport water, mineral and sugars for the plant

Primary Xylem:

formed at root and shoot apex early in development, they form vascular bundles in leaves and young stems

Secondary xylem:

formed later in development found in both shoots and roots

Phloem, primary and secondary

transports or imports sugar through out the plant made during P/S primary in vascular bundles near xylem, secondary outside 2ndary xylem

What three cells compose the phloem?

sieve tube members, companion cells main ones and parenchyma cells for packing

Sieve tube:

part of the phloem an elongated rank of individual cells arranged end to end forming a tube that conducts food material throughout the plant

Companion cells:

part of phloem lie connected to sieve tube members at maturity, they help load and unload phloem - surround guard cells making them contract or close


made of complex tissue generally one cell thick, they have no chloroplast living at majority, enlongated irregular contours on their cell walls which are covered in cutin


waxy substance of epidermis that forms the cuticle keeping water in and out, it covers all the plant except the root tip and shoot apex

Guard cells:

do not contain chloroplast, two come together to form opening for gas exchange


several layers thick, secondary tissue type, forms layer of protection in older stems and roots, formed after the younger epidermis is split and lost. Ex bark of a tree trunk

___________responsible for elongation of roots and stems

apical meristem

lateral meristems

A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.


A small raised area in the bark of stems and roots that enables gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.

root system

All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.

shoot system

all the parts of a vascular plant exclusive of the root; normally above-ground, consisting of stem, leaves, buds, and reproductive organs,cones, or flowers and fruits; functions include photosynthesis, transport of materials, reproduction, and hormone synthesis

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