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124 terms

Psych Modules: 33,34,40,41,48,51,52

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intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation of drawing
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's aptitudes and comparing them with those of other's using numerical scores
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8year old is said to have a mental age of 8
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient
defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. average is 100
achievement tests
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
aptitude tests
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Wechsier Adult Intelligence Scale
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of a pretested group
normal curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
validity
the extent to which a test measures of predicts what it is supposed to
content validity
the extent to which test samples of the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
intellectual disability
formally referred to as mental retardation; a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty to adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
down syndrome
a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving 1: physiological arousal 2: expressive behaviors, 3: conscious experience
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arouding stimulus simultaneously triggers 1: physiological responses and 2: the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion on must 1: by physically aroused and 2: cognitively label the arousal
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivilty
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR
the American psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, with an updated "text revision"; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Which of the following statements concerning the labeling of disordered behaviors is NOT true?
Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders.
Psychiatrists and psychologists are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is
personally distressful
the discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
the medical model
toddlers who watch lots of TV are, at age 7, more likely than average to display symptoms of
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
which of the following is true of the medical model
it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatablw
Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the "king of the universe" mr hunt is most clearly suffering from
delusions
janet, whose class presentation is titles "current views on the causes of schizophrenia" concludes her talk with the statement
"genes may predispose some people to react to particular experiences by developing schizophrenia
people born in ___ during the month of ____ are at increased risk for schizophrenia
australia; september
one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
an expressionless face
disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning signs of
schizophrenia
feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with
major depressive disorder
one way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to
participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding
to break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-congnitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both
external and temporary
professor pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ____ perspective
evolutionary
failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are
internal, stable, and global
inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
the biopsychosocial approach
which of the following is true of the medical model
it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable
if research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, thsi would most clearly give added credibility to
the medical model
after anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor's tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. this best illustrates the
biasing power of diagnostic labels
one study monitored teens and young adults who had two relatives with schizophrenia. those who subsequently developed schizophrenia displayed a tendency to be ____ prior to the onset of their disorder
socially withdrawn
a person with schizophrenia whose speech is so full of unrelated words and phrases is said to be exhibiting
word salad
symptoms of withdrawal following the disappearance of hallucinations and delusions are most indicative of ___ schizophrenia
residual
false beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called
delusions
mania is most likely to be experienced by those suffering
bipolar disorder
the rise of western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in
depression
a therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. the therapist's interpretation reflects a ____ perspective
social-cognitive
research suggests that women are more vulnerable to depression than men because women are more likely to respond to negative life events with self-focused rumination. this suggestion best illustrates a ___ perspective
social-cognitive
stressful life events like the loss of a job are most likely to increase one's risk of
depression
behavior is classified as disordered when it
has all of these characteristics
psychiatrists and psychologists would be likely to identify agoraphobia (fear of places where escape might be difficult) as a psychological disorder because it is
personally dysfunctional
which of the following is true of the medical model
it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable
using DSM-IV TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis. This indicates that the DSM-IV_TR is
reliable
The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
social circumstances and psychological factors
disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning sign of
schizophrenia
which of the following has been pinpointed as an early warning sign for the subsequent onset of schizophrenia
poor muscle coordination
when schizophrenia is slow develop, called ____ schizophrenia, recovery is ___
process; unlikely
north americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for
schizophrenia
people born in ___ during the month of ____ are at increased risk for schizophrenia
australia, september
research regarding depression indicates that
with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevelence
abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with
depression
one way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to
participate more often in activites they consider pleasant and rewarding
mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of
elation
which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger towards parents
psychoanalytic
compared with kids of average intelligence, more intelligent children show cortex thickening at a(n) ___ age and ___ noticeable changes in cortex thickening and thinning
later, more
injury to the left ___ lobe damages the convergent thinking required for successful performance on intelligence tests
parietal
which of the following best described the relationship between creativity and intelligence
a certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient creatibity
brain size (adjusted for body size) is ___ correlated with intelligence. the speed of taking in perceptual information is___ correlated with intelligence
positively, positively
studies of infants show that babies who quickly become bored with a picture
score higher on intelligence tests many years later
five-year-old wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4 year old. Wilbur's mental age is
4
five year old benjy has an iq of 120 on the original version of the stanford-binet. his mental age is
6
women scoring in the highest 25 percent on the scottish national intelligence test at age 11 tended to ___ than those who scored in the lowest 25 percent
live longer
according to the james -lange theory we experience emotion ___ we notice our physiological arousal. according ot the cannon-bard theory we experience emotion ___ we become physiologically aroused.
after;at the same time as
hohmann discovered that the ____ individual's spinal cord in jury, the more feelings of anger tended to ____ in intensity following the injury
higher; decrease
who will probably be angrier after getting a parking ticket
dan, who has just completed a tennis match
unlike the low-road brain pathway the high road for emotional responses extended through the
cortex
as a member of the diplomatic corps, alex was given special training in the customs. ;anguage, and religions of the nonindustrialized country where he would be living. howeever, alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts's expressions of emotion as revealed by their
facial expressions
The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of
human genetic similarities
We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are
lying
When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor McGuire's perceptual skill best illustrates
emotional intelligence
In 8 to 10 seconds, memory whiz Kim Peek can read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he has little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim's mental capacities best illustrate
savant syndrom
Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is
someone with savant syndrome
High intelligence scores have been linked with high concentrations of gray matter in certain regions of the frontal lobe. The gray matter refers to the ________ of neurons.
cell bodies
A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of
75
Five-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 120 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is
6
Before about age ________, intelligence tests generally do not predict future scores.
3
Why does the predictive validity of general aptitude tests decrease as the educational experience of the students who take them increases?
there is a relatively restricted range of aptitude test scores among students at higher educational levels
Two years ago Maria was in an automobile accident in which her spinal cord was severed, leaving her paralyzed from her neck down. Today, Maria finds that she experiences emotions less intensely than she did before her accident. This tends to support which
james lange theory
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the experience of an emotion
occurs simultaneously with physiological arousal
accourding to the 2 factor theory the two basic components of emotions are __ and ___
a cognitive label; physical arousal
I am an emotionally literate person who is very accurate at reading others' nonverbal behavior, detecting lies, and describing my feelings. Who am I?
a woman
Researchers attempt to understand emotions using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
cognitive labeling
Patients reportedly feel less depressed following between-the-eyebrows Botox injections that immobilize their frown muscles. This best illustrates
the facial feedback effect
Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of
emotional intelligence
Don's intelligence scores were only average, but he has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Psychologists Sternberg and Wagner would probably suggest that
don's practival intelligence exceeds his academic intelligence
Melvin has been diagnosed as having savant syndrome, which means that he
is limited in mental ability but has one exceptional ability
Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is
someone with 100% savant syndrome
The percentage of people diagnosed with intellectual disabilities has ________ over the past 80 years because intelligence tests have been ________.
increased; restandardized
6. Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of an intellectually disabled child. It is MOST likely that their child
will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life
Sorting children into "gifted child" education programs is most likely to be criticized for
widening the achievement gap between higher and lower ability groups
A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of
75
Emotional disgust is to emotional delight as ________ is to ________.
right prefrontal cortex activiation; left prefrontal cortex activiation
As people experience negative emotions
the right prefrontal cortex becomes more elctrically active
The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.
cognitive activity
Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend, however, she experienced unusual
two factor theory
People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.
tones of voice
With regard to emotions, Darwin believed that
the expression of emotions helped our ancestors to survive. ,human facial expressions of emotion retain elements of animals' emotional displays.,all humans express basic emotions using similar facial expressions.
If a gender-neutral face is made to look angry, most people perceive it as ________. If asked to imagine an angry face, most identify it as ________.
male;male