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Social Psych (Liking, Loving, and Close Relationships)
Terms in this set (41)
Relationship that develops between two peop
The study of attraction or liking between two or more people
Nearness or proximity in physical space, which creates the opportunity to meet another person.
*We notice people who are nearby
The physical layout of buildings and the distance separating different buildings, rooms, and other spaces.
compared to physical distance, the closeness between two places in terms of the opportunities for interaction
Attitude similarity affect
The idea that people find others more attractive and likable the more similar they are in attitude, beliefs, and preferences.
*People find stranger more attractive the more similar the stranger is to the person.
*People are generally attracted more to other people who are similar to themselves.
*These similarities can be based on deep ones like attitudes and values. People who get married are more likely to have similar last names.
The idea that people find others less attractive and less likeable if they differ substantially in their attitudes, beliefs, and preferences.
*People assume others are like them, so adding confirmation of that shouldn't
change their feelings, but disconfirming information should cause a major change in their feelings.
he process of people revealing to one another increasingly personal and intimate details about themselves.
People differ on the degree to which they self disclose to others.
In general, people who disclose relatively intimate details about themselves
are better liked than those less inclined to self-‐‐disclose.
*People tend to reveal personal things about themselves to others who they initially like.
*People tend to like another person more because they self-‐‐disclosed to that person.
Person who is good at getting others to disclose intimate details about themselves.
Enjoys listening to people
People tend to open up more and talk about themselves
*High disclosers Comfortable sharing with anyone
*Low disclosers Comfortable sharing with high openers
Show a preference for attractive faces
More positive response to attractive versus unattractive strangers *Prefer attractive to unattractive dolls
Components of facial features
Facialmetrics Measurement of a large number of facial features *Male faces rated as more attractive by females:
Prominent cheek bones
Height of eyes don't deviate too far from average
*Female faces rated as more attractive by males:
Small nose and chin
What is beautiful is good
Inference that attractive people possess other desirable traits and abilities in addition to their good looks.
Do attractive people benefit by the law
3,500 cases reviewed
14% of acquittal cases the judge would have convicted the defendant
*Defendant attractive or victim unattractive
*14% of conviction cases the judge would have acquitted the defendant
*Defendant unattractive or victim attractive
*Physically unattractive defendant more likely to be classified as Dangerous Offenders and to receive severe sentences in Canada.
*Studies with mock jurors show that physically attractive defendants are less likely to be considered guilty, and they are likely to receive
Dyadic relationships involving mutual liking
Sociometric rating procedure
Within a group of acquaintances, each person is asked to name everyone whom he or she considers a friend. Two peers within that social network are then considered to be friends if each nominates the other as a friend.
hildren who are named frequently by others in a sociometric rating procedure
Maintain positive relationships with peers
Avoid drawing attention to selves
Join in play without disrupting what others are doing
Communicate clearly about their feelings and interests
Generally cooperative and sensitive to others' interests *Can be assertive
Rejected aggressive children
Children who are unpopular because they commonly engage in disruptive aggressive behavior
Call attention to themselves
Uncooperative in peer groups
Relatively insensitive to others' interests and needs
Rejected withdrawn children
Children who are spurned by their peers because of their social awkwardness and immaturity
Don't fit in
Develop low self esteem
Avoid playing with others
Frequently become the victims of bullying attac
How peers exert influence
Fit in with peers *Fear peer rejection
Sensitivity to social norms grows
Greater motive to be liked and accepted by peer
Bowlby's theory concerning development and effects of emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver; also used to account for the
relationship that develops between close friends and lovers throughout the life span.
Focus on behaviors developed over evolution
Adults and infants come biologically prepared to develop attachment
Developed by Mary Ainsworth, a procedure involving several brief episodes during which experimenters observe a baby's responses to strangers,
separation from mother, and reunions with mother.
Mother and baby observed while alone with toys
Stranger enters and talks with mom, then talks with baby while mom leaves
Stranger lets baby play with toys
Mother returns, then later says bye to the baby and leaves again *Stranger returns after a period of time, then mom returns
Attachment across cultures
Cultural differences in infant distress during strange situation
*Cultural differences in how much infants separated from mother and how often they encounter strangers
Greater variability within culture than between culture
Secure pattern most frequent around the world
Avoidant pattern more common in Western European countries
Anxious-‐‐ambivalent is more common in Israel and Japan
Working model of close relationships
The feelings, thoughts, beliefs, and expectations learned during the course of an infant's first close relationships
The concept of attachment used to describe and understand close relationships in adulthood by translating each of the three major patterns of
attachment found among infants—secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant—into their adult forms
How to measure attachment
*Adult Attachment Interview
*Attachment over life span
*Adult Attachment Scale
*Focus on relationships with adults
*Play and Work
*Work represents adult version of exploration and mastery
Reported they enjoy work
Not very concerned about failure *Don't let work interfere with important relationships
A method used to study adult attachment that involves the recording of information about a person's social interactions over a period of time.
Types of adult relationships
*Exchange relationship A relationship in which the partners tend to keep track of what they've given and what they've received, and try to keep books balanced
*Communal relationships A relationship in which the receipt of a benefit creates no specific obligation to return that benefit. Responding to the needs of your partner is the benefit.
The idea of perceived fairness or balance in interpersonal relationships, such that both partners perceive that they are receiving relatively equal outcomes.
*Concerns about equity seem to make a difference in initial stages of a relationship
*Equity matters to most people some of the time, and to some people most of the time
*Inequity associate with distress and unhappiness
*Equitable relationship when both partners perceive they are getting similar outcomes.
An interactive process in which a person feels understood, validated, and cared for
as a result of a partner's response.
A person's ability to be accurate in his or her understanding of another's experiences.
Types of love
*Passionate love The kind of love involves strong and intense feelings, infatuation, arousal,
and a deep sense of passion.
*Companionate love Kind of love that develops in a close and intimate relationship, the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined.
*Love styles (Lee) The idea that people differ in their styles of love. The three primary styles are eros, storge, and ludus.
*Know what types turns them on and become excited when they meet a person who comes close to their ideal.
*Erotic style, starts with powerful physical attraction.
*One study found people report more satisfaction the more they are described by eros love style
Kind of affection that develops between siblings or playmates.
Not intense excitement or passion of eros.
*Kind of love that develops when people enjoy similar activities, start a friendship, and then slowly build, an affection and sense of commitment.
*Lovers don't have particular type in mind and don't go looking for love.
Like numerous, shorter lived love experiences
Less satisfaction in relationship
Preoccupied with lover *Possessive and can be jealous
Insecure and need repeated assurance they are loved
Fear unrequited love *Like ludus, but with less confidence
Keep informal list of qualities they want in a lover
Closer match = greater love
Compatibility is the goal
Combination of ludus and storge
Selfless, giving, altruistic love
A duty to love another in need of love even in absence of eros
Triangular Theory of love
*Closeness and connectedness when feel understood and cared for by another
*Intense physical or sexual attraction you may feel for another
*Decision to love someone in short term. In long term, a dedication to maintain that love
*Triangular Theory of Love The idea that a wide variety of love experiences can be understood as combinations of three basic components: intimacy, passion, and commitment
Cultural Dimensions of love
Companionate love most prevalent
Although romantic passion is not found everywhere, (147/166) it is found in most place
*Intense physical or sexual attraction you may feel for anothe
Investment model of close relationships
According to this model, satisfaction and stability in a relationship depend on the degree to which its partners feel committed to the relationship.
Commitment is determined by the balance or trade off between the positive and negative aspects of the relationship, with the idea that people compare the value of their current relationship with the value of available alternatives.
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