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31 terms

chapter 2

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anthropcentric
universe places human being at its center
biocentrism
The belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans.
blind experiments
those in which those carrying out the experiment don't know until after data has been gathered and analyzed which was the experimental treatment and which was the control
controlled studies
Those in which comparisons are made between experimental and control populations that are identical (as far as possible) in every factor except the one variable being studied.
deductive reasoning
Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles.
ecofeminism
a pluralistic, nonhierarchical, relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways as an alternative to patriarchal systems of domination
environmental ethic
our beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior
environmental justice
A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings.
environmental racism
Decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.
hypothesis
an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested
inductive reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
inherent value
ethical values or rights that exist as an intrinsic or essential characteristic of a particular thing or class of things simply by the fact of their existence
instrumental value
Value or worth of objects that satisfy the needs and wants of moral agents. Objects that can be used as a means to some desirable end.
LULUs
Locally Unwanted Land Uses such as toxic waste dumps, incinerators, smelters, airports, freeways, and other sources of environmental, economic or social degradation.
moral agents
beings capable of making distinctions between right and wrong and acting accordingly. Those whom we hold responsible for their actions
moral extensionism
expansion of our understanding of inherent value or rights to persons, organisms, or things that might not be considered worthy of value or rights under some ethical philosophies
moral subjects
Beings that are not capable of distinguishing between right or wrong or that are not able to act on moral principles and yet are capable of being wronged by others.
morals
Set of ethical principles that guide our actions/relationships
nihilists
Those who believe the world has no meaning or purpose other than a dark, cruel, unceasing struggle for power and existence.
paradigms
a model that provides a framework for interpreting observations
parsimony
stinginess; frugality; cost-cutting
relativist
claim that moral principles are relative to person, society or situation
reproducibility
Making an observation or obtaining a particular result more than once.
science
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
science theory
an attenpt to explain a pattern observe repeatedly in the natural world
significant numbers
Meaningful numbers whose accuracy can be verified.
stewardship
A philosophy that holds that humans have a unique responsibility to manage, care for, and improve nature.
toxic colonialism
Shipping toxic wastes to a weaker or poorer nation.
universalists
those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging. In this vision, these principles are valid regardless of the context or situation
uilitarians
Those who hold that an action is right that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people
values
beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something)