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universe places human being at its center


The belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans.

blind experiments

those in which those carrying out the experiment don't know until after data has been gathered and analyzed which was the experimental treatment and which was the control

controlled studies

Those in which comparisons are made between experimental and control populations that are identical (as far as possible) in every factor except the one variable being studied.

deductive reasoning

Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles.


a pluralistic, nonhierarchical, relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways as an alternative to patriarchal systems of domination

environmental ethic

our beliefs about what is right or wrong environmental behavior

environmental justice

A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings.

environmental racism

Decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.


an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested

inductive reasoning

reasoning from detailed facts to general principles

inherent value

ethical values or rights that exist as an intrinsic or essential characteristic of a particular thing or class of things simply by the fact of their existence

instrumental value

Value or worth of objects that satisfy the needs and wants of moral agents. Objects that can be used as a means to some desirable end.


Locally Unwanted Land Uses such as toxic waste dumps, incinerators, smelters, airports, freeways, and other sources of environmental, economic or social degradation.

moral agents

beings capable of making distinctions between right and wrong and acting accordingly. Those whom we hold responsible for their actions

moral extensionism

expansion of our understanding of inherent value or rights to persons, organisms, or things that might not be considered worthy of value or rights under some ethical philosophies

moral subjects

Beings that are not capable of distinguishing between right or wrong or that are not able to act on moral principles and yet are capable of being wronged by others.


Set of ethical principles that guide our actions/relationships


Those who believe the world has no meaning or purpose other than a dark, cruel, unceasing struggle for power and existence.


a model that provides a framework for interpreting observations


stinginess; frugality; cost-cutting


claim that moral principles are relative to person, society or situation


Making an observation or obtaining a particular result more than once.


An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

science theory

an attenpt to explain a pattern observe repeatedly in the natural world

significant numbers

Meaningful numbers whose accuracy can be verified.


A philosophy that holds that humans have a unique responsibility to manage, care for, and improve nature.

toxic colonialism

Shipping toxic wastes to a weaker or poorer nation.


those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging. In this vision, these principles are valid regardless of the context or situation


Those who hold that an action is right that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people


beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something)

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