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APHuG Chapter 7

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religion
a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities
secularism
the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife
monotheistic religion
belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe
polytheistic religion
belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe
animistic religion
the belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforst on Earth
universalizing religion
belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope
ethnic religion
religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people
Hinduism
one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan (unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
caste system
the strict social segregation of people (specifically in India's Hindu society) on the basis of ancestry and occupation
Buddhism
religion founded in the 16th century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge (especially self-knowledge), elimination of greed, craving and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal
Shintoism
religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism (focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship)
Taoism
religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled "Tao-te-ching," or "Book of the Way" (focus on the proper form of political rule oneness of humanity and nature)
Feng Shui
"wind-water": the Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities (positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ["life-breath"] in favorable ways)
Confucianism
a philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture
Judaism
religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur) who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god (according to ______ teaching, Abraham and G-d have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one god, and G-d agrees to protect his chosen people, the ________)
diaspora
("to disperse") forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place (originally denoting the dispersal of the Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong)
Zionism
the movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land
Christianity
religion based on the teachings of Jesus (according to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of G-d, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to G-d's plan)
Eastern Orthodox Church
one of three major branches of Christianity, the _______ ________ ______, together with the Roman Catholic Church arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey)
Roman Catholic Church
one of the three major branches of Christianity; arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions... centered in Rome
Protestant
one of three major branches of Christianity; following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others challenged many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church
Islam
the youngest of the major world religions, _____ is based on the teachings of Muhammad, born in Mecca in 571 CE (according to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the verses of the Qu'ran, the _______ holy book
Sunni
the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist; believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions of Muhammad as authoritative
Shi'ite
the smaller of the two main divisions of Islam; represent the Persian variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali
indigenous religions
belief systems and philosophies practiced and traditionally passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group
Shamanism
community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman (a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary; generally local and sometimes regional)
pilgrimage
voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site
sacred sites
place or space people infuse with religious meaning
minarets
tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer
hajj
the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the world's major faiths
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
ethnic cleansing
the systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation
activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
religious fundamentalism
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
religious extremism
religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence
shari'a laws
the system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law; unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, ______ is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran
jihad
a doctrine within Islam; commonly translated as "Holy War", Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu'ran