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American Civil War and Reconstruction

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Battle of Antietam
1862 Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Union
the United States (especially the northern states during the American Civil War)
Confederacy
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Battle of Bull run
the first major battle of the Civil War, it took place on July 2, 1861 at Manassas Junction, VA at which surprised Union troops retreated, it showed that the war was not going to be one quick clean battle
cotton gin
machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories based on popular sovereignty
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
Massachusetts 54th Regiment
First successful Black regiment, led by Robert Gould Shaw. Most famous battle was that fought at Ft. Wagner where they lost most of their men--a very celebrated regiment
Appomattox
Lee surrenders here, but Grant offers the Confederacy good surrender terms to try to reunify the country.
black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court (1854) decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Ulysses Grant
Union military commander who won victories when others had failed and defeated Lee
Battle of Fort Sumter
The spark that starts the Civil War. Lincoln sends troops to the South to recapture federal forts and preserve the Union. 4 new states secede.
Total War
all-out attacks aimed at destroying not only an enemy's army but also its resources and its people's will to fight
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
sharecropping
a system used on southern farms after the civil war in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Jim Crow laws
laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote
John Brown's Raid
An attempt by abolitionist John Brown to cause a slave rebellion by seizing a weapons arsenal; however, it failed since no slaver knew about it. Caused south to believe northern abolitionists were all radical and militant.
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy during the Civil War
Freedmen's Bureau
Agency created by Congress as the war ended to assist Civil War refugees and freed former slaves.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves; it legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Gettysburg Address
speech by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, key ideas were liberty, equality, and democratic ideas; purpose of war was to portect those ideas
Andrew Johnson
17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal