AP Human Geography-Agriculture
Terms in this set (37)
Definition: Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Example: Tyson Chicken or Smithfield Pork
Application: Agribusiness is a very large and powerful sector in the U.S.
Definition: The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Example: Growing Crops.
Application: Agriculture has been a developing activity over the past several thousand years. It has changed more in the past 30 years than it has in all of the years before that.
Definition: A grass yielding grain for food.
Example: Oats, Wheat, Rye, and Barley
Application: Cereal Grain is mass produced and is used in many different industries: from bread to beer.
Definition: Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Example: The Chaffs, husks, are separated by being threshed.
Application: The Chaff is where most nutrients are fund.
Definition: A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans gram while moving over a field.
Example: Combines are driven through fields where they pick up any useful part of a plant.
Application: Combines now allow for very efficient agriculture.
Definition: Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Application: Commercial Agriculture has allowed for food to be mass produced in a way that has significantly impacted both the health and finances of the American People.
Definition: Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Example: Oats, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Corn...anything really
Application: Crops are now genetically engineered to grow anywhere in the world.
Definition: The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Example: Feild A grows x crop one year, y crop the next year, z crop the year after that, and then goes back to x crop once the cycle has restarted.
Application: Crop rotation is one way to keep the land sustainable.
Definition: Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Example: Slash and Burn promotes desertification
Application: Desertification destroys soil and ultimately makes it useless for years(until the nutrients are replenished)
Definition: Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Example: Winter Wheat is grown in addition to normal crop rotation
Application: Double cropping can be bad for the soil, but offers an interesting source for surplus
Definition: Seed of a cereal grass
Example: Crops from a grain farm are typically used for human consumption
Application: Grain is grown extensively because of its large variety of uses.
Definition: Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Example: Modern agricultural techniques spread in the '70s and '80s is known as the Green revolution. Chemically engineered crops=Example.
Application:This revolution gave birth to what we now see as commercial farming.
Definition: The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Example: Lots of Horticulture in the Mediterranean Region
Application: Horticulture is important because fruits an vegetables offer the most nutrients in our diets.
Definition: The outer covering of a seed.
Example: The Hull breaks when the seed sprouts
Application: The hull also protects the seed before it is able to sprout.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
Definition: A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Example: Families in LDCs must undergo intensive subsistence agricultural practices in order to provide for themselves.
Application: These aforementioned families/farmers have significant impact(or lack there of) on then economy due to their self-sustainability.
Definition: The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Example: A milkshed could be 100 miles around a city.
Application: Since modern technology is so complex, milksheds have now expanded quite a bit.
Definition: Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
Example: Paddy is farmed in wet, moist places.
Definition: A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Example: Camel Herders
Application: These Nomads use their physical surroundings to feed their donkeys.
Definition: Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
Example: Open Meadow
Application: A pasture is where a herd of animals graze.
Definition: A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Example: Sugar Cane plantation grows more than sugar.
Application: Plantations are used in order to increase efficiency.
Prime Agricultural Land
Definition: The most productive farmland.
Example:Much Prime agricultural land has been lost due to show times.
Application:Prime Agricultural Land is hard to come by these days.
Definition: A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Example: Cattle Ranching in West Texas
Application: Because of Commercial farming, Ranching is seen less and less.
Definition: A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.
Example: A reaper is used to help stimulate the farm's efficiency
Application: A reaper reaps all grain that is just chill on the field
Definition: System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Application: This system is good because it does not promote the desertification of soil.
Definition: A flooded field for growing rice
Example: Sawahs are seen in Africa and the middle east.
Application:Sawahs provide an easy (easier) way for people to receive rice.
Definition: A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Example: Feild Rotation
Application:Shifting Cultivation is so important because it keeps the soil full of nutrients.
Definition: Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Example: RUINS SOIL-VERY BAD
Application: Burn crops , and then remove ash from the area.
Definition: Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Example: Crop grown during the spring so that the harvest can be during the fall.
Application: Planted in Montana and the Dakotas
Definition: Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Example: Family in LDC
Application: This family uses subsistence farming which allows them to be self sustaining(for the most part)
Definition: Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Example: Crop Rotation
Application: This sustainable agriculture will keep our soil alive.
Definition: A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Example:Once a land remains baron for a few years i owe you an apology
Application: A Swidden gives hope for land that can be sustainable once again.
Definition: To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Example: When crops are harvested, they must be threshed.
Application: Threshing is an important step because without it, crops would not properly develop after initial release of seeds.
Definition: The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Example: Commonly seen in the UK
Application: Sheep are typically seen migrating between mountains and pastures based off of where the food is.
Definition: Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
Example: Crops may now be transported a lot further than previously done.
Application: Truck farming offers and entirely new agricultural market.
Definition: Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Example: Seen primarily in the East
Application: Wet rice is a large industry in Asia resulting in a lot of economic growth due to exportation.
Definition: To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Example: Winnowing can be seen in fields?
Application:I DONT REALLY KNOW ABOUT THIS ONE
Definition: Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Example: Winter wheat offers another season for the growth of wheat.
Application: Winter Wheat is primarily seen Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma.