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membranes (fluid mosaic)
composed of phospholipids + proteins; contain integrins which attach to cytoskeleton to give membrane a stronger framework
process in which particles spread out evenly in available space; from high=> low concentration (diffuse down "concentration gradient" until equilibrium)
ABILITY of solution to cause a cell to GAIN/LOSE water;
depends on concentration of solute inside/outside of cell
aquaporins (transport proteins)
use FACILITATED DIFFUSION to help substances across membrane (no energy)
binds passenger, changes its shape, and releases passenger on the other side; protein is specific for its substrate
moving large molecules
material packaged in vesicle that fuses w/ membrane:
1) exocytosis= EXPORT molecules
2) endocytosis= IMPORT substances
1) PHAGOCYTOSIS= engulf particle by wrapping cell membrane around it and forming vacuole
2) PINOCYTOSIS= same, except fluids are taken into small vesicles
3) RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS= receptors interact with protein, forming a vessicle
1) EXERGONIC REACTION= RELEASES energy
- ex. cellular respiration
2) ENDERGONIC REACTION= requires INPUT of energy + yields products rich in potential energy
- ex. photosynthesis
3 types of work
1) chemical= driving ENDERGONIC reactions
2) transport= pumping SUBSTANCES ACROSS MEMBRANES
3) mechanical= BEATING of CILIA
use of EXERGONIC processes to DRIVE ENDERGONIC processes in order to accomplish work
hydrolysis of ATP that releases energy by transferring 3rd phosphate from ATP to another molecule
shuttles CHEMICAL ENERGY and drives CELLULAR WORK; composed of adenine, ribose, 3 phosphate groups; renewable source of energy
speed up cell's chemical reaction by lowering energy barriers (energy of activation); unique 3-D shape with an ACTIVE SITE where SUBSTRATE binds;
require optimum temperate & optimum pH
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