51 terms

Anatomy final

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what is the function of cartilage
provide flexibility
where in the body is cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle found?
cardiac-heart
smooth- lines organs, blopd vessels
skeletal- muscles attatched to skeleton
True or false- Epithelial cells lack a direct blood supply
True
What tissue makes up the outermost layer of skin?
Epithelial
What are the general characteristics of nervous tissue?
Conducts nerve impulses and coordinates bodu activities
what is considered to be the largest organ in the body?
skin
Using anatomical terms, explain the body sections. (sagittal, Transverse, frontal)
sagittal- length wise cut that divides body into left & right portions
Transverse- cut that divides the body into upper & lower parts
Coronal (frontal) - Cut that divides body imtp fromt & back parts
What organs are associated with the lymphatic system.
Spleen & lymph vessels
Explain difference between anatomy & physiology
anatomy- Structure
physiology- function
Use the anatomical terms in a sentence
Distal- the fingers are distal to the wrist

Medial- the ulna is medial to the radius

Superior- the eyes are superior to the mouth

Anterior- the mouth is anterior to the ears

Posterior- the brain is posterior to the nose
Distinguish between the appendicular & axial skeleton
Appendicular- pertaining to the upper & lower limbs

axial- pertaining to the head, neck, & trunk
Distinguish between the following parts of skin relative to their location. - Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
epidermis- Outer layer
Dermis- between epidermis & subcutaneous
Subcutaneous- beneath the dermis
Explains how sweat functions to cool the body
evaporation
What is the subcutaneous lauer of skin made up of?
Loose connective tissue & adipose tissue
what are the functions of skin?
for protection, regulate body temp, remove waste, & prevent infection
Where would you find the basement membrane in the integumentary system?
Beneath the epithelial tissue & connective tissue
What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Protection, secretion, & excretion
Why is cartilage slow to heal following an injury?
Poor blood supply
What type of muscle can't be consciously controlled?
cardiac or smooth
What type of cell produces connectice tissue fibers?
Fibroblast
What is the function of neurological cells?
Protect, support & maintain equilateral in nervous system
What type of muscle is found in blood vessels?
Smooth muscle
How can you distinguish the different tissue types?
Cell arrangement, size & function
Explain the structure of smooth, skeletal, & cardiac muscle tissue.
Smooth- Not striated, involuntary

Skeletal- striated, voluntary

cardiac- striated, involuntary
Which type of muscle remains in a state or partial contraction when your legs are straight?
skeletal muscle
What two layers make up the skin?
Epidermis & Dermis
What structures make up the integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, & exocrine glands
What is rhe most abundant substance in cells?
Water
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Support, movement, protection, blood cell production
Indentify some organs that are located in the abdominopelvic cavity, and some organs only located in the pelvis cavity
Abdominopelvic- Stomach, intestines, kidneys

Pelvic- Bladder & reproductive organs
List the levels of organization in order from simplest to the most complex beginning with cell
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organism
What is the function of the endocrine system?
Control metabolic activities
What structures are associated with the cardiovascular system?
Heart, blood, blood vessles
Which system does the larynx belong?
Respiratory
What is an osteon and where is it found?
Contains nerves and blood vessels and runs through compact bones
List the bones that are found in the orbit of the school
Sphenoid, lacrimal, frontal
List the types of bones classified by their shape and give an example of each
Short- cube like, lengths and widths roughly equal
ex. wrist, carpal

long bone- long axis and expanded ends
ex. femur

Flat bones- plate like, with broad surfaces
ex. ribs, scapula

Irregular- Variety of shapes, usually connected to other bones
ex. vertebrae

Round- small and navicular
ex. patella
Define:
Melanin - involved in skin color
Hemoglobin- pigment that transports oxygen
Periosteum- tough fibrous tissue that encloses the bone
Histology- study of tissues
Keratin- basic structure of hair and nails
Organ- Structure consisting of a group of tissues with a specialized function
Homeostasis- keeping internal conditions stable
Define:
Osteoclasts- cell that breaks down bone
Osteoblast- bone forming cells
Osteocytes- mature bone cell
Articular cartilage- Hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of bones and synovial joints
Diaphysis- shaft of a long bone
Epiphysis- end of a long bone
Ligaments- Connects bone to bone
Medullary cavity- Cavity containing marrow within the diaphysis of a long bone
What is an intramembranous bone and give an example
Skull bones
What are the characteristics of joints in your body?
permits bone growth, bind parts of a skeletal system, change shape during child birth
Distinguish between a synarthortic, amphiarthrotic and diarthrotic
Synarthotic- immovable
Amphithartic- slight movement
Diarthrotic- freely moveable
Distinguish between cartlaginous joints and fibrous joints
Cartilaginous- held together by hyaline and fibrocartilage
fibrous- held together by dense connective tissue
What are the types of fibrous joints and explain the amount of movement permitted.
Syndesmosis- amphiarthrotic
Suture- Synarthotic
Gomphosis- synarthotic
What are the types of synovial joints and give an example for each
Ball and socket- shoulder
Saddle- carpal and metacarpal of thumb
Condyloid- metacarpals and phalanges
gliding- between bones of wrists and ankles
Explain the types of movement
Flexion- decreasing angle
Extension- straightening parts of a joint
Abduction- moving a part away from middle
adduction- moving a part toward the midline
Rotation- moving a part around an axis
Circumduction- moving a part so end follows a circular path
What types of muscles are voluntary?
Skeletal
What are the most common types of cells found in connective tissue?
Firbroblasts
What are the intervertebral disks that separate the parts of your backbone formed from?
Fibrocartilage- symphis
Explain the types of cartilaginous joints and the amount of movement permitted by each
Synchondrosis- synarthotic
Symphisis- apmpharthrotic