Terms in this set (30)
20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathers
Plague that struck Europe in 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
A narrative piece of literature written by Chaucer. This narrative involves the concept of bawdy behavior, making fun of the hypocrisy of Christians during the Medieval time period, as well as the understanding of the tragedies of human existence.
Early Frankish king who converted Franks to Christianity in 496 and allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
The social organization created by exchange grants of land or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
Sworn associations of people in the same business or trade in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine; became king of England and a vassal of France. With his wife, he owned more land than the king of France.
emperor who fought Gregory VII in investiture. Wanted to assert monarchic authority and limit the powers of the church;
Holy Roman Emperors
Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states.
was the "fight against heretics" by several institutions within the justice system of the Roman Catholic Church
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Key Three Estates
Divisions of the feudal system or classes; divided between the church, the nobility, and the peasants.
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
Expanded Holy Roman Empire and had close ties with the Pope; was first Holy Roman Emperor since Charlemagne.
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers allowed Greek Civilization to define identity separate from the Asian empire.
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam.
Dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems.
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
An Italian-born monk who taught at the University of Paris; He maintained the basic belief that religion was to come before reason. He produced the Summas (highest works) which were written to carefully eliminate all of the possible objections to the truth as revealed by reason and faith.
System of agricultural cultivation by 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow.
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Members of military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
William the conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represent principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Frankish ruler of the Carolingian line and first Holy Roman Emperor; established a large but short-lived empire that covered modern day France, Germany, Italy, and the Low Countries, which was divided for his three sons after his own death