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Francis Bacon

scientific method

Nicholas Copernicus

"heavenly bodies" reestablished heliocentric theory, opened up challenging authority

Francis Crick

human genome project with james watson

Charles Darwin

"origins of species" 1859; natural selection, competition for food/mates

René Descartes

cogito ergo sum (i think therefor i am)

Albert Einstein

special theory of relativity 1905
general theory of relativity 1916


heliocentric theory, almost developed scientific method

Stephen Hawking

Black Holes

Werner Heisenberg

uncertainty principles, physics no 100% provable

Steve Jobs

founder of Apple

Carl Linnaeus

animal classification into subgroups/families

John Locke

explains justification of coup of James, tabula rosa

Charles Lyell

principles of geology

Gregor Mendel

originated study of genetics

Dmitry Mendeleev

published work for periodic table in 1869

Isaac Newton

principia mathematica 1687, universe operates under God's rules, gravity

Robert J. Oppenheimer

head of Manhattan Project

Louis Pasteur

germ theory of disease, was turned down

Max Planck

quantum theory in 1900

Wilhelm Rontgen

invented Xrays

Herbert Spencer

translated translated origin of species into 'dumb', coins 'struggle for survival'

Alan Touring

computer, Britain government, WWII

Steve Wozniak

worked with Steve Jobs on Apple

atomic bomb

1945, Oppenheimer

"cogito ergo sum"




Double Helix



application of science to society, lead by Philosophy, reason/empiricism



General Theory of Relativity


genetics and heredity


geocentric theory

catholic church

heliocentric theory


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