Microbiology Final Exam Study
Terms in this set (178)
Robert Koch and his lab workers (Fanny) first used agar in bacteriological media. Why did they find this better than previous materials used to grow bacteria?
A) The food material Koch was using previously was much more expensive than agar
B) Agar could convert from liquid to solid form and back to liquid very easily
C) Agar is a great source of nutrients for bacteria
D) Bacteria growing on the solidified media did not degrade or break down the media
You are interested in viewing viruses. What microscope would you use?
A) Dark field microscope
B) Atomic force microscope
C) Phase contrast microscope
D) Electron microscope
E) Bright field microscope
Which of the following is a scientific name?
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) Streptococcus pyogenes
A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue. All cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of a/an
A) Acid-fast stain
B) Differential stain
C) Negative stain
D) Endospore stain
E) Simple stain
Magnification is achieved in a compound microscope through the initial magnification of the specimen by the _________ lens; this image is then projected by the ________ lens that will further magnify the specimen to form a virtual image received by the eye
A) ocular; condenser
B) ocular; objective
C) objective; ocular
D) ocular; oil immersion
E) scanning; objective
Which isolation technique is most effective for the majority of applications, and is most commonly used for colony isolation in the laboratory?
A) Pour plate
B) Loop dilution
C) Spread plate
D) Streak plate
The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Although it can be isolated from the vagina, there are numerous normal biota that live there as well. In order to culture the "bad guy" (without all the "good guys"), one should use ____________
A) Selective media
B) Refrigeration temperature for incubation
C) Enrichment media
D) Liquid media
E) Mannitol salt agar
Which scientific field is involved in the identification, classification, and naming of organisms?
Which of the following is not a microorganism?
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. This bacteria is an example of a _______________
When the Gram stain is done properly, Gram positive cells stain ___________, whereas, Gram negative cells stain ____________
A) Blue; purple
B) Purple; blue
C) Purple; pink
D) Pink; blue
E) Pink; purple
A microbiologist uses media that contains thioglycollic acid. What type of microbe is the microbiologist trying to culture?
Bacteria helped clean up the 2010 BP oil spill. This is an example of ______________
Susan purposefully added bacteria to a sterile tube of nutrient broth. This is an example of _________________
Newly inoculated cultures must be ____________ at a specific temperature and time to encourage growth
When assigning a scientific name for an organism,
A) The species name is capitalized
B) The species name is written first
C) Both the genus and species names are italicized or underlined
D) The species name can be abbreviated
E) Both the genus and species names are capatilized
Which of the following is the correct order of taxonomic categories going from most general to least general (most specific)?
A) Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
B) Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
C) Species, family, class, order, phylum, kingdom, domain
D) Division, domain, kingdom, class, family, genus, species
E) Domain, phylum, kingdom, class, family, order, genus, species
Mannitol salt agar is used for isolation and identification of what genus of bacteria?
Mult select: Quality of microscopic images depends on _________
B C D
A fastidious organism must be grown on what type of medium?
B) General purpose
A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermis and Escherichia coli into a culture medium. Following incubation, only E. coli grows in the culture. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
A) The microbiologist used too much inoculum
B) The culture is contaminated
C) The culture medium is selective
D) The culture medium is differential
E) The incubation temperature is incorrect
Gram staining tells about the structure of the ____________
C) Cell membrane
D) Cell wall
A throat swab was used to take a specimen from a patient who has a sore throat. If the patient had Strep throat, what media would the microbiologist use?
A) Mannitol salt agar
B) Chocolate agar
C) Blood agar
D) MacConkey agar
E) Tomato juice agar
Following inoculation and incubation, most cultures are _____________
A) Phone a friend
The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called ___________
A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus aureus into a culture medium. Following incubation, both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are determined to be growing in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A) The microbiologist used too much inoculum
B) The incubation temperature was incorrect
C) The culture medium is differential
D) The culture is contaminated
E) The culture medium is selective
Which of the following is present in BOTH Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells?
A) Outer membrane
C) Teichoic acid
E) Porin proteins
Mult Select: Which eukaryotes have a cell wall?
Which of the following makes the BEST target for fungal infections?
A) Sterol synthesis
C) Cell membrane
D) Cell wall
Mult Select: Periplasmic flagella function in ________
C) Cell shape
D) Protein synthesis
E) Cell division
B C E
During unfavorable growth conditions, many protozoa can convert to a resistant dormant stage called a/an
Satellite viruses are
A) dependent on other viruses for replication
B) major plant pathogens
C) also called viroids
D) the cause of "mad cow" disease
E) infect life on Mars
Reverse transcriptase synthesizes
A) Viral DNA from RNA
B) A positive RNA strand from a negative RNA strand
C) Viral RNA from DNA
D) A negative RNA strand from a positive RNA strand
The Gram stain differentiates cells based on the structure of the ________________
A) Cell membrane
C) Cell wall
A few antibiotics target cell membranes by blocking incorporation of chemicals into sterol molecules for the cell membrane. Which statement below is true?
A) This kind of antibiotic would kill viruses only
B) An antibiotic with that activity would be an excellent destroyer of most bacterial cells
C) The majority (not all) bacteria would be unaffected by those specific antibiotics
D) Only eukaryotic cells are affected by this group of antibiotics
Host range is limited by
A) Type of lipids in the host cell membrane
B) Age of the host cell
C) Type of host cell receptors on the cell membrane
D) Size of the host cell
E) Type of nucleic acid in the virus
The most effective ammunition we have against viruses is ___________
B) We have no effective means of combatting viruses
The one-celled organism you are viewing with your microscope is moving very slowly, by protruding its cytoplasm. The specimen was taken from a patient having diarrhea. You would predict that the patient has an infection caused by
Which of the following is NOT a method of motility used by protozoa?
Streptococcus pneumonia has a _______________ on its surface that protects it from being phagocytosed by white blood cells
A) Slime layer
E) Outer membrane
Halobacterium salinarium lives in and requires salt to grow. This is an example of an acrchaebacterium described as a/an
Bacterial endospores usually function in _____________
C) Protein synthesis
D) DNA replication
Mult Select: Which of the following are oncoviruses?
A) Hepatitis viruses
A B C
Mult Select: Where are ribosomes located in eukaryotic cells?
A) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
B) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
D) Golgi apparatus
A client has serious respiratory infection. A random sample of sputum was taken from the patient coughing up blood. The lab technician said that they isolated a bacterium that did not contain any peptidoglycan. You hypothesize that the identity of this microbe could be
A) Streptococcus pneumoniae
B) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
C) Staphylococcus aureus
D) Borrelia burgdorferi
E) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _________________, whereas most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _______________
A) Nucleus; endoplasmic reticulum
B) Nucleus; cytoplasm
C) Cytoplasm; nucleus
D) Cytoplasm; cell membrane
E) Cell membrane; cytoplasm
Most fungi obtain nutrients from dead plants and animals. These fungi are called
Mitochondria and chloroplasts likely originated from _______
C) Invaginations of the cell membrane
Mult Select: What are the major structures that allow bacteria to adhere to surfaces?
D) Periplasmic flagella
The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the
A) Food vacuole
Mult Select: Which of the following is/are virulence factors?
B C D E
During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the host _________________
E) Cell membrane
You are looking at an organism under the microscope. It has a cell wall, no chloroplasts, and a nucleus. It is most likely a/an
Our cells burst when placed in distilled water (hypotonic solution) This is because our cells lack a ________________
A) Cell wall
C) Cell membrane
Viruses exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:
A) Definite shape
B) Ability to infect host cells
D) Ultramicroscopic size
Infectious protein particles are called ________
E) Oncogenic viruses
Movement of a cell toward OR away from a chemical stimulus is termed:
You have found a mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae that has lost its ability to produce a capsule. If you inject this strain into a population of healthy mice, what prediction can you make regarding the consequences?
A) The mice will remain healthy
B) The infection in these mice will respond to antiviral medication
C) The mice will get a severe case of pneumonia then recover
D) The mice will die of pneumonia
After staining your patient's specimen, an aspirate from the lungs, by the acid fast stain and focusing on the specimen, you find a large population of hit pink-red bacillus shaped bacteria in the smear. Which statement below is true?
A) This result would be a normal outcome when looking at sputum of healthy people
B) The patient likely has HIV
C) The patient likely has tuberculosis
D) The patient likely has pneumonia
Mult Select: Which of the following are the main functions of bacterial appendages?
B) Protein synthesis
C) Slime production
Which of the following are sources of Naegleria fowleri infection?
A) Cold saltwater
B) Warm fresh water
C) Cold freshwater
D) Water fountains
E) Warm saltwater
Bacteria in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia are not readily stained by standard techniques. This is due to what difference in their cell wall structure compared to other bacteria?
A) More peptidoglycan
B) Presence of an outer membrane
C) Easily decolorized
D) Presence of waxy lipids
E) These bacteria do not have a cell wall
Which organelle is a stack of flattened membraneous sacs and functions as UPS? (Recieves, modifies, and packages proteins)
A) Golgi apparatus
B) Smooth ER
Viruses with _____________ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, whereas viruses with ________________ sense RNA must first be converted into a correct message
A) Primary; secondary
B) Negative; positive
C) Secondary; primary
D) Positive; negative
Mult Select: Which of the following can be used to cultivate or grow viruses?
A) Bacterial cells
B) Blood agar
C) Cell culture
D) Bird embryos
E) Enriched media
A C D
Tamiflu is a common medication given for influenza treatment, its actions being to protect and block sialic acid molecules on the surfaces of host cells and influenza virus envelopes as they leave the cell. Which statement reflects the mechanism of Tamiflu's action?
A) Tamiflu inhibits reverse transcriptase
B) Tamiflu blocks proteins synthesis of the viral genome
C) Tamiflu interferes with the replication of + ssRNA from the -ssRNA genome of the flu virus
D) Tamiflu interferes with the metabolic properties of the virus
E) Tamiflu interferes with the release of the budding viruses from the infected host cells
Zombie ants result from infection from what type of microorganism?
You are working in a laboratory that is studying a newly isolated virus. Your are using cell culture to grow the virus in vitro. Upon observing your inoculated tissue culture specimen, you notice clumps of cells growing on the original monolayer of cells. Microscopic analysis of stained cells from the culture reveal an alteration in host cell membrane protein content and chromosome structure. Based on this information, you hypothesize that the virus you are studying is ____________
A) A bacteriophage
B) A viroid
C) An oncovirus
D) A satellite virus
E) A prion
The cell's series of tunnel-like membranes that act as a subway, functioning in transport and storage is the
A) Golgi apparatus
E) Endoplasmic reticulum
A treatment for bacterial infections from the early 20th century has made a comeback, the use of bacteriophages to eliminate bacterial infections. What is the mechanism of action behind this treatment?
A) The bacteriophages increase growth of the harmful bacteria
B) The attachment structures on the virus and the receptors on the host cell make for exquisite specificity between virus and bacterial species
C) Viruses can infect bacteria, transferring pathogenic genes. The viral genes could then be suppressed to stop viral replication
D) A wide variety of bacteria cause a large percentage of human infections
E) The bacteriophages stimulate growth of the host cells
Trypanosomes cause which of the following diseases?
B) Lyme disease
C) Chaga's disease
D) African sleeping sickness
Mult Select: The core of a virus contains
Biologists have found evidence that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic organisms by a process of intracellular
___________ Manual of Systematic Bacteriology is a manual of bacterial descriptions and classifications
Pregnant women should not change cat litter because of infection from what type of organism?
Mult Select: Bacterial endospores are produced by
Sulfa drugs effect
A) DNA synthesis
B) Cell wall synthesis
C) Folic acid synthesis
D) RNA synthesis
E) Ribosome synthesis
Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called
What statement can be made about microbial growth in the refrigerator?
A) The majority of food does not contain enough oxygen for the majority of microbes to survive
B) There is not growth of microorganisms in the refrigerator because the cold kills microbial cells
C) The growth of microorganisms in the food depends on their optimal growth temperature
D) I should go clean my refrigerator now
E) The absence of light in this environment greatly reduces the growth of most pathogens
The patient has a staphylococcal infection of the blood, which is very serious and possibly deadly. As a doctor you would like to prescribe a relatively non-toxic and inexpensive drug from the cephalosporin family. However, if the patient harbors a strain of Staphylococcus that is resistant to a variety of antibiotics you would prefer to use vancomycin, which is highly effective against Staphylococcus. Which of the following explains why a cephalosporin drug is preferred for use over the vancomycin?
A) Vancomycin is very toxic, and the Staphylococcus could become resistant leaving no back up drugs with which to treat the infection
B) Vancomycin is very selectively toxic, and you prefer one that has a more broad-spectrum effect
C) You would rather give the inexpensive drug to save the family money
D) You do not know much about vancomycin, so you prefer to prescribe the drug you know more about
Microbes producing antibiotics is an example of
Mult Select: Which of the following contribute to contribute to emerging drug resistance?
A) Improper use of antibiotics
B) Preventing infections
C) Broad spectrum antibiotics
D) Combined drug therapy
F) Overuse of antibiotics
G) Giving antibiotics prophylactically to livestock
A C F G
You are interested in determining the number of cells and the size of the cells. In addition you need to be able to distinguish between live and dead cells. Which of the following would you use?
A) Scanning electron microscope
B) Flow cytometry
C) Coulter counter
D) Turbidity counter
E) Transmission electron microscope
The majority of human pathogens are
You have inoculated your Clostridium species into a tube of media. After incubation, you find that it is not growing and you realize the organism is an obligate anaerobe. What is the best explanation for this lack of growth?
A) Oxygen in the medium destroys the enzymes needed by Clostridium to undergo anaerobic respiration
B) Clostridium does not have the enzymes required to break down hydrogen peroxide
C) There is not enough oxygen available for use when hydrogen peroxide is present
D) There is not enough water in the environment for Clostridium to grow
Which of the following of microbial forms is easiest to kill (most sensitive to chemical and physical control methods)?
A) Fungal spores
B) Protozoan cysts
C) Gram positive bacteria
D) Protozoan trophozites
E) Gram negative bacteria
The termite requires a protozoan in its gut to provide the enzyme cellulase for the termite's use of cellulose in wood products, and the protozoan uses the products of cellulose break down. This is an example of what type of relationship?
Fastidious organisms require growth on what type of media?
B) General purpose
D) Chemically defined
The use of a drug to prevent imminent infection is called
B) Competitive inhibition
Your cured bacon has been contaminated. Which of the following is most likely the culprit?
Mult Select: Microbes that are the target of pasteurization include
A) Clostridium botulinum
B) Bacillus species
C) Mycobacterium species
D) Clostridium perfringes
E) Salmonella species
Which of the following statements is the best explanation of why communities of microorganisms in biofilms are synergistic?
A) One microbial species may produce a metabolic end product that can be used as a substrate for another species
B) The different microbial species can all grow together
C) The various microbial species can change the environment to their growth advantage, allowing all of the species to grow better
D) The various species in the biofilm interact with each other
Antiviral drugs that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat infections caused by
B) Hepatitis C virus
C) Varicella virus
E) Herpes virus
F) Influenza A virus
Mult Select: Which of the following drugs target the cell wall?
A E G H
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because fungi, protozoa, and helminths
A) Are parasites found inside human cells
B) Do not cause many human infections
C) Have fewer target sites in their cells compared to bacteria
D) Are not effected by antimicrobials
E) Are so similar to human cells that drug toxicity is difficult to achieve
For each item below, pick the method that will provide the best microbial control without destroying the material or product. You may use a control method more than once
E. Ionizing radiation
1-Metal surgical instruments
2-Green beans for consumption
4-Vial of influenza vaccine
5-Flask of nutrient agar
6-Mail contaminated with anthrax spores
7-Plastic petri dishes
8-Fruit in plastic bags
A bacterium is photosynthetic, but without light it can use organic compounds to make energy. Its carbon source is an organic compound. This organism is classified as a/an
Using an alcohol wipe on a patient before injection
Removing vegetative microbial life forms and debris to reduce contamination to safe levels
Process that destroys or removes all microbial forms, including bacterial endospores, from inanimate objects
Destroying vegetative cells on an inanimate object
Your patient has been on antibiotics for 6 weeks after a case of Streptococcus endocarditis, an infection of the inner heart wall. The infection clears up; however, the patient just visited you regarding a urinary tract infection (UTI), and the lab verified the culprit was E. coli. What do you hypothesize happened in this situation?
A) The lab has made a mistake in identifying the cause, and the UTI was caused by the original Streptococcus
B) The lab had made a mistake in identifying the cause, and the endocarditis was caused by E. coli
C) The antibiotic damaged her immune system, making her very sensitive to environmental bacteria
D) Her normal microbiota in the GI tract were killed, allowing E. coli to establish an infection
In lab, inoculating loops are sterilized using
C) Ionizing radiation
D) Nonionizing radiation
E) Moist heat
G) Gas sterilization
Which set of 4 elements makes up the largest proportion of cells by dry weight?
A) Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
B) Carbon, Sulfur, Potassium, Oxygen
C) Nitrogen, Carbon, Sulfur, Potassium
D) Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Hydrogen
E) Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a cultures is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _________ represents one ________ from the sample
A) Cell; colony
B) Generation; cell
C) Colony; cell
D) Species; colony
E) Cell; cell
Mult Select: Which of the following drugs target protein synthesis?
B C D
Broad spectrum azoles such as Ketoconazole and Fluconazole are used to treat ____________________ infections
How do surfactants work?
A) Denaturing proteins
B) Disrupting membrane integrity
C) Coating the organism, preventing interaction with its environment
D) Blocking transport into the organism
E) Blocking transport out of the organism
Mult Select: Our relationship with our normal flora is
Which of the following microbes would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?
Mult Select: Which of the following transport mechanisms do NOT require energy?
A) Facilitated diffusion
B) Group Translocation
C) Simple diffusion
D) Carrier mediated active transport
E) Bulk Transport
When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed
A) Facilitated transport
B) Bulk transport
C) Facilitated diffusion
Which of the following microbial forms has the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?
B) Protozoan cysts
D) Fungal spores
E) Enveloped viruses
F) Protozoan trophozites
G) Naked viruses
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator (5 degrees C), out on a lab bench top (22 degrees C), on the shelf of a 37 degree C incubator and on the shelf of a 50 degree C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37 and 50 degrees, slight growth in the refrigerator, and abundant growth on the bench top. What term should be used for this species?
Which of the following drugs has the most narrow spectrum of activity?
Bacteria living in a freshwater stream that are moved to salty seawater would
A) gain water and swell
B) gain water and burst
C) be in a hypotonic solution
D) become dehydrated due to loss of water
E) be in an isotonic solution
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated in a standard incubator, in an anaerobic jar, and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth in the candle and anaerobic jars and heavy growth in the incubator. This species is a
B) Facultative anaerobe
Microbial death is defined by
A) Color change of growth media
B) Inability to reproduce in optimal conditions
C) Lack of motility
D) Absence of vital signs
E) Cell lysis
____________ is a control method that removes microbes rather than inihibiting or killing them
A drug with a ________________ therapeutic index is safer for the patient
A) They are equally safe
B) Phone a friend
Which of the following is the BEST target for treating fungal infections?
A) Sterol synthesis
B) Cell membrane
C) Cell wall
E) Protein synthesis
Over 50 percent of sales of medically important antibiotics in the US are for livestock use. Why is this problematic for humans?
A) The animals may become sick from the antibiotic ingestion
B) The use of antibiotics for animals means there are not enough for use in the human population
C) The livestock will become resistant to the antibiotics and not respond to treatment when they have infections
D) Resistant bacteria grow in the animals and may be passed to humans
What compound has the highest concentration in the cell?
Hydrogen peroxide is most effective at killing what types of microbes?
E) Facultative anaerobes
You have some old plastic petri dishes that you would like to use for pouring bacteriological media (agar plates). The only method of sterilization you have available for the plates is UV light. After sterilizing the plates and pouring the agar, which was sterilized using the autoclave, you leave the plates overnight at room temperature to dry. When you return, you find contaminant bacteria growing on the agar. Predict what likely happened in this situation
A) Air got into the poured plates contaminating them
B) The room temperature enhanced the growth of normal biota of the agar
C) The lids of the petri dishes were inadverantly left on while being sterilized
D) The agar had bacteria in it even after sterilizing in the autoclave
_____________ is a halogen that is used for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage
F) Hydrogen peroxide
G) Silver nitrate
Destruction of lymphocytes with self-reactivity is termed
A) Clonal selection
E) Clonal deletion
What immune cells have long, thin processes to trap pathogens?
A) T cells
B) Dendritic cells
E) B cells
Which genus is resident biota of the mouth, large intestine, and vagina from puberty until menopause?
Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?
B) Complement fixation
Which immune cell represents the infantry, is first to arrive on scene and often dies shortly after exhibiting its immune activity?
E) B cells
F) T cells
G) Dendritic cells
Which class of immunoglobulin is involved in allergy and parasitic infections?
Mult Select: Which of the following genera are found on the skin?
A B D F
The white blood cells that release histamine during inflammation and allergic reactions are
C) Dendritic cells
Mult Select: Which of the following methods do bacteria use for adhesion?
B C D
What T cell works with B cells to promote differentiation and antibody secretion?
D) T regulatory cell
E) Cytotoxic T cell
Immune cells differentiate between self and foreign cells by their
A) Cell membranes
C) Cell walls
D) Cell processes
Deer ticks are the ________________ for Lyme disease
C) Mechanical vector
D) Biological vector
Mark has the measles, but there is not enough microbes to cause symptoms yet. What type of carrier is Mark?
MHC molecules are found on all of the following cells EXCEPT
A) Mast cells
B) Epithelial cells
C) Red blood cells
G) Langerhans cells
What immune cells resembles Pac-Man (eats everything, including cellular debris)
C) Dendritic cells
A patient visits your clinic often with recurrent respiratory infections. Based upon medical history, it appears that the patient has been an active smoker for 40 years. Select the statement that reflects how this information may reveal why the patient is highly susceptible to respiratory pathogens
A) Smoking can paralyze the ciliary escalator
B) Smoking decreases the formation and effectiveness of complement proteins
C) Smoking directly inhibits B cell activation
D) Smoking decreases the activity of neutrophils
E) Smoking increases the activity of regulatory T cells
The subjective evidence of disease as sensed by the patient is termed a/an
Which of the following are benefits of fever?
A) Reduces ability of temperature sensitive organisms to multiply
B) Increases metabolism
C) Stimulates hematopoiesis
D) Increases availability of iron
E) Increases phagocytosis
A B C E
Which process involves antibodies covering microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
C) Complement fixation
Helper T cells
A) Directly destroy target cells
B) Function in allergic reactions
C) Activate B cells and other T cells
D) Secrete antibodies
E) Dampen the immune response
A virulence factor is one which
A) Invading microbes use against normal flora
B) Allows a host to evade infection
C) Allows a microbe to invade and establish itself in the host
D) Normal flora use against invading microbes
E) Used by normal flora to colonize host tissues
The molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocyte recognizes and responds to is called the
A) Super antigen
E) Antigen binding site
G) Variable region
A patient is suffering from general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches. What period or stage is the patient experiencing?
A) Prodromal stage
B) Period of invasion
C) Incubation period
D) Recovery period
E) Convalescent stage
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has chemicals in its cell wall that inhibit the fusion of phagocytic vacuoles with lysosomes. Which statement is then true?
A) Antibodies produced by the cells can effectively kill the bacteria
B) The bacteria can survive and replicate inside the macrophage
C) Complement proteins will take over to destroy the bacteria
D) The bacteria can produce chemicals which destroy the macrophage housing the bacteria
What types of molecules are found on foreign substances that that are recognized by phagocytes?
Mult Select: Which of the following are examples of a nonspecific physical barrier to infection?
B) Lysozyme in saliva
C) Unbroken skin
D) Cilia in the respiratory tract
E) Hair follicles
G) Low pH in the stomach
C D E
The time from when a pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply until symptoms first appear is the
A) Recovery stage
B) Period of invasion
C) Prodromal stage
D) Convalescent stage
E) Incubation period
Which of the following are true of T cells?
A) Have receptors called immunoglobulins
B) Require antigen presented with MHC proteins
C) Secrete antibodies
D) Mature in the bone marrow
E) Produce plasma cells and memory cells
Which lymphoid tissue has the immunological function of filtering the blood?
E) Lymph nodes
Mult Select: Which of the following are APC's?
A) T cells
D) B cells
E) Natural killer cells
F) Dendritic cells
D F G
Small molecules that by themselves are too small to elicit an immune response are termed
E) Variable regions
G) Super antigens
Which protein can be produced by a virus infected cell in order to communicate with other cells that need to produce antiviral proteins?
Place the following in order
A B D C
Endogeneous infections are caused by
A) Parasitic flora that have been ingested
B) Microbes that are transmitted from one person to another
C) Infection by indigenous biota in a healthy individual
D) Viral invasion
E) Normal biota in an unusual site
A) Have well-defined virulence factors
B) Cause disease in compromised individuals
C) Are usually transmitted via ingestion
D) Are always pathogens
E) Cause disease in healthy individuals
Specific immunity provides long-lasting protection through the production of
A) T helper cells
B) Plasma cells
D) Memory cells
E) Phagocytic cells
Cindy had recovered from TB several years ago, but the bacteria is still latent within her body. What type of carrier is Cindy?
Your 81 year old grandfather has been diagnosed with cancer of the thymus. The doctor is urging surgical removal of the cancer, but you and your family are concerned about removing an entire organ such as the thymus. Which statement is correct?
A) The thymus will not effect your grandfather's immune system at this age
B) Your grandfather will not have sufficient phagocytic cells and would not be able to contain bacterial infections
C) Your grandfather will have a loss of T lymphocytes and will have an immune deficiency
D) Your grandfather would not be able to produce complement proteins necessary for pathogen control and inflammation
A patient suffering from influenza gets a case of pneumonia. The pneumonia is an example of ?
A) Systemic infection
B) Mixed infection
C) Primary infection
D) Focal infection
E) Secondary infection
Aluminum oxides enhance immunogenicity by prolonging antigen retention at the injection site. Alumininum oxides are a/an
B) Recombinant vaccine
C) Gamma globulin
The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucous, saliva, colostrum, and other bodily secretions is
The term infection refers to
A) A pathological state
B) Contact with pathogens
C) Contact with microbes
D) Pathogens penetrating host defenses
E) Microbes colonizing the body
A) Bound to the cell membrane of pathogens
B) Shed from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria
C) Secreted by pathogens
D) Have general effects
E) Cause more damage than endotoxins
F) Bound to the cell wall of pathogens
Hematopoiesis is the
A) Production of only red blood cells
B) Loss of blood due to hemorrhaging
C) Migration of white blood cells from blood to tissues
D) Production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
E) Plugging of broken vessels to prevent bleeding
F) Production of only white blood cells
The histocompatability complex proteins function in
A) Antibody proliferation
B) Monocyte differentiation
C) T cell maturation
D) Recognition of self
E) B cell maturation
Which of the following are lymphoid tissues?
B) Lymph nodes
C) Thyroid gland
A B E F G
A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a/an
Rabies travels throughout the body via the nervous system. This is an example of?
A) Mixed infection
B) Focal infection
C) Systemic infection
D) Secondary infection
E) Local infection
What is the relationship between our normal flora and invaders?
Mult Select: Which class(s) of antibodies is involved in activating complement?
The greatest number of pathogens enter the body via the
A) Gastrointestinal system
B) Genital system
C) Respiratory system
D) Urinary system
Histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin are
A) Mediators that stimulate chemotaxis
B) Mediators of B cell activity
C) Vasoactive mediators
D) Fever inducers
E) Mediators of T cell activity