Create an account
Myth of Isolationism
While the foreign policy of 1920s and 1930s seemed to reflect America's disenchantment through isolationism, in actuality the United States simply implemented an independent form of internationalism
Washington Conference of 1921
An attempt to prevent what was threatening to become a costly and destabilizing naval armaments race between America, Britain, and Japan: produced several treaties the Five-Power Pact, Nine-Power Pact, and Four-Power Pact
February 1922, a pact that established both limits for total naval tonnage and a ratio of armaments among the signatories
A pact of the Washington Conference that pledged a continuation of the Open Door policy in China
A pact of the Washington Conference by which the US, Britain, France, and Japan promised to respect one another's Pacific territories and cooperate to prevent aggression
A pact in 1928 that established the New Era effort to protect the peace without accepting active international duties.
- A multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy
- 14 nations signed the agreement in Paris on August 27, 1928 and 48 nations later joined in
A proposed system by Charles G. Dawes in 1924 by which American banks would provide enormous loans, enabling them to meet their reparations payments, etc...
- CIRCULAR LOANS did NOT solve anything
Hoover's Approach to World Crisis
- Latin America: repair damage of earlier policies, but as economic distress led to collapses of regimes, Hoover would grant diplomatic recognition to any sitting government w/o questioning
- Europe: proposed moratorium on debts in 1931 BUT European nations defaulted
the leader of the Fascist Party in Italy that had gained control in early 1920s
- Began an active campaign of imperial expansion
Leader of the National Socialist (or Nazi) Party in Germany that would finally take over by 1933
- He preached the racial superiority of the Aryan (German) people and the need for expansion
An early step towards WWII, the Japanese military leaders staged a coup in 1931 and weeks later launched a major invasion of northern Manchuria
Secretary of State who dealt with the aftermath of Japan's invasion of Manchuria by refusing to grant diplomatic recognition of new Japanese territories
FDR's message that repudiated the orthodox views (of Hoover who wanted to reinforce gold standard etc) of most of the delegates and rejecting any agreement on currency stabilization
-PLUS in 1934 he signed a bill to forbid American banks to make loans to any nation in default on its debts
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934
Approved by FDR authorizing the administration to negotiation treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50% in return for reciprocal reductions by other nations
US and the Soviet Union
The FDR administration began to improve relations with the Soviet Union.
WHY: source of trade + agreement about propaganda and recognition (which ultimately failed)
Good Neighbor Policy
the US abandoned the use of military force to compel Latin American governments to repay debts, respect foreign investments, or otherwise behave "responsibly" (Hoover)
- FDR and the Inter-American Conference established a strictly (and powerful) economic influence
An expression of isolationist conspiracy theory that thought that involvement in WWI was to profit big munitions corporations
A response to Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia
- 1935: a mandatory arms embargo against both victim and aggressor in any military conflict
- 1936: renewed provisions
- 1937: established cash and carry policy
A response to Japan's invasion of China's northern provinces, FDR's speech in 1937 warned the American people of the dangers of Japanese aggression
An effort to resolve the crisis created when Germany invaded Czechoslovakia in which France and Britain agreed to accept German demands for Czechoslovakia in return for Hitler's promise to expand no further
Proposed by GB's prime minister Neville Chamberlain in the Munich Conference that ultimately failed for Hitler expanded regardlessly
A lull in fighting (after September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland and drew Britain and France into WWII) that lasted through winter and spring
The German invasion of the west in the spring of 1940 that shattered the "phony war" and ended in the conquering of France
Shifting Public Opinion
After the defeat of France, more than 66% of the public now believed Germany to be a major threat to the US
-Internal preparations for war (as well as outward support of the Allies) were more supported
America's First Committee
Even with the defeat of France, isolationists expressed their support in neutrality with a new powerful lobby
the dynamic and attractive Republican nominee for the 1940 election who lost to FDR (who campaigned for a 3rd term)
Great Britain became bankrupt and could no longer participate in "cash and carry"
- the new policy would allow the government to not only sell but to lend out armaments to any nation deemed "vital to the defense of the United States"
When German forces invaded the USSR in June 1941, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to extend lend-lease privileges to them (beginnings of an alliance)
In August 1941, FDR and Churchill met on a ship off the coast of Newfoundland to set out "certain common principles" (war aims) that openly called for the end of the Nazi regime
In September 1940, Japan Germany and Italy agreed to a loose defensive alliance that seemed to extend the Axis into Asia
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together