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A method for studying the natural world/An organized way to study and answer questions
Scientific theory
An explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations
Scientific law
A statement about what happens in nature and that seems to be true all the time.
Scientific method
A logical process used to solve a problem
1. State the problem
2. Research
3. Observations
4. Form hypothesis
5. Experiment
6. Analyze the data
7. Conclusions
Use your 5 senses to perceive objects or events
A testable statement
Controlled experiment
Based on a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
Control group
The group that we use as a standard of comparison
Experimental group
Group that we are testing the variable on
Independent variable
The variable being tested
Dependent variable
Changes according to changes of independent variable
A factor that does not change
Based on the analysis of your data, you decide whether or not your hypothesis is supported or refused
The amount of matter that makes up an object
Closeness of a measurement to the accepted value
The closeness of a set of measurements
Frame of reference
What you compare an object's motion to
Change of an object's position relative to a reference point or frame of reference
How far you travel from a starting point
Distance and direction of an object compared to its starting point
An arrow used to represent a quantity, the longer the tail of the arrow the bigger the quantity
Scalar measurement
Measurements that quantities only a number or magnitude. Ex.- Distance
Vector measurement
Measurements involve a number or quantities magnitude and direction
Rate at which an object changes position
Speed and direction an object is moving
When the velocity of an object changes. Speeding up(positive) slowing down(negative)
A push or a pull exerted on another object
Balanced force
The forces are equal and going opposite directions
Unbalanced force
Unequal forces causing an object to move
Net force
sum of all forces acting on an object
Centripetal force
Unbalanced force acting on an object to move it towards the center of the curve
It is a force that opposes motion between to objects that are in contact
Force of attraction between 2 masses
Terminal velocity
The highest velocity and object can reach
Newtons 1st law
An object at rest will remain at rest while an object in motion will remain in motion unless an outside force acts on it
Newtons 2nd law
Relationship between force, mass, and acceleration
Newtons 3rd law
For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
A tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Mass of an object times its velocity
Fluid friction
This occurs between a fluid and another surface or two fluids
Air resistance
Force that air exerts in a moving object in the opposite direction of motion
Anything shot or thrown into the air
Ability to cause change/ do work
Kinetic energy
Energy in motion
Potential energy
Energy stored because of position or shape of object
Mechanical energy
Total amount of potential and kinetic energy in a system. Energy acquired by an object apon which work is done
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can not be created nor destroyed it only changes forms.
Rate at which work can be done
Force acting through a distance
Work input
input force X input distance
Work output
output force X output distance
Any device that makes work easier by changing a force
Mechanical advantage
The number of times a machine multiplies the input force
The percent of input work that becomes ouput work
Simple machine
The basis of all machines
The pivoting point
Gravitational potential energy
Energy stored energy due to its position above a reference point
Elastic potential energy
Energy stored by something that can be stretched or compressed
Chemical potential energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Inclined plane
A flat, slanted surface connecting two points of elevation
Simple machine that consists of 2 inclined planes that move to do work
Inclined plane wrapped around a central bar or cylinder to form a spiral
A rigid bar free to pivot about a fixed point
Wheel and axel
Made of 2 circular objects different sizes that are connected and turn in the same direction
Rope, belt, or chain wrapped around a grooved wheel
Any gas or liquid
Static friction
Type if friction that occurs between two surfaces not moving past each other
Sliding friction
The force that opposes motion between two objects sliding past each other
Rolling friction
Occurs between a rolling object and a surface