5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- which class came to dominate european society after 1492
- a steel characterised by pattern of bands or sheets
- b Persian scientist, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and author. He is often cited as "the father of algebra", which was named after a part of the title of his book, Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala, along with the algorism number system
- c city in Peru that was one of the great mining centers in the sixteenth century New World. The Spanish crown was particularly interested in mining because it received one-fifth of all mining revenues
- d merchant- entrpreneurial class which acquired enormous wealth
- e village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting as this is where iron-ore was first smelted by Abraham Darby using easily mined "coking coal" The coal was drawn from "drift mines" in the sides of the valley
5 Multiple choice questions
- The doctrine that land and its products are the only true wealth.
- 13th century Syrian Arab from Damascus
pioneered sci fi, from Syria; Arab physician who propsed the making of encyclopedia and medical writings and science fiction;
- relationship between the lord (the owner of the means, could be a king) and to whom the lord owes protection (the peasants that are living on their land). Blend of chiefdom political organizations
- Who: Pizarro is a Spanish conquistador born in Trujillo, Spain.
What: Pizarro led the first group of Europeans over the Andes mountains in South America and. On November 15, 1532, Pizarro led a group of 168 men into Cajamarca in Peru. What they saw was an army of 80,000 Inca warriors. On November 16, 1532, Inca leader, Ataxalpa agreed to meet with the Spaniards but decided to unarm all of his warriors for festivities rather than war. In the end, this decision turned out to be Ataxalpa's undoing because the 168 Spaniards led by Pizarro were able to overrun the Inca without one of the Spaniards dying.
When: 15th to 16th Century
Significance: The main significance of Pizarro was that he was able to conquer one of the biggest South American empires of that time, the Incas. His massacre of the 7,000 Incas with just 168 men happened because of geographical advantages and technological advancements over the Incas (according to Jared Diamond). One major advantage was the European horses over the South American llamas. The Spanish horsemen were known throughout Europe for their exceptional maneuverability and speed. Another advantage was the European steel over the South American bronze. The Spanish were able to use guns while the Incas merely had spears and arrows. Yet another advantage was the Spanish writing. Past Spanish battles were recorded and were used at later periods, but the Inca were not able to read or write. Pizarro was able to read about the strategies and experiences of past conquerors and use this knowledge to his advantage.
- (1924-96) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, development of scientific disciplines is discontinuous, and at critical junctures mass changes occurred/paradigm view
5 True/False questions
arthshastra → Famous classical mathematician, wrote a book that summarized Hindu mathematics, discovered pi, calculated the length of the solar system, and the circumference of the earth during India's Classical Era.
Triangular Trade → The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
what specific advantage did the europeans have over non-europeans in arriving at the americas first? → locational advantage of being closest to the americas geographically
mutazilites → The Muqaddimah English: Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena is a book written by the Maghrebian Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history. Some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the philosophy of history or the social science of sociology demography, historiography or cultural history. and economics, The Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences of biology and chemistry. Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the preface or first book of his planned world history, the Kitab al-Ibar but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work.
what does the author mean by "extra european economy" that was instrumental in the rise of capitalism in Europe and not anywhere else? → exploitation of resources, capital, labor, and land outside europe to enrich the merchant class of europe who eventually took control of the society