What is precisely the overall argument of the author in this chapter?
different parts of the world were in approximately the same level of capitalist development in 1492. what made europe surge ahead was the enormous wealth is acquired from the americas, the slave plantations and slave trade.
what specific advantage did the europeans have over non-europeans in arriving at the americas first?
locational advantage of being closest to the americas geographically
in terms of wind movement over the atlantic ocean, the probability of an Iberian (portuguese/spanish) ship sailing to the americas was greater then an Asian or African ship. Why?
Winds in the Indian ocean move in a clockwise direction while that of Atlantic in anti-clock wise direction. So the design of the Asian and african ships were unsuited for sail in the atlantic
what was the main reason for the rapid collapse of the great civilizations of the Incas and Aztecs in the americas soon after the arrival of Spanish conquistadors?
diseases the europeans introduced took its toll often even before the actual physical arrival of the spaniards
the very first white owned slave plantations worked by africans was set up in the americas in
brazil in the 16th century growing sugar
what was the primary goal of all individual europeans and groups who came to the americas after 1492:
to make as much money as possible and get rich quick
which class came to dominate european society after 1492
merchant- entrpreneurial class which acquired enormous wealth
the "caribbean school of history" represented by CLR James, Eric Williams and many other scholars writing since the 1930s have forcefully made the following argument
slave based industries and slave trade were crucial casual forces in british and french industrializations
what does the author mean by "extra european economy" that was instrumental in the rise of capitalism in Europe and not anywhere else?
exploitation of resources, capital, labor, and land outside europe to enrich the merchant class of europe who eventually took control of the society
Feudal Mode of Production
relationship between the lord (the owner of the means, could be a king) and to whom the lord owes protection (the peasants that are living on their land). Blend of chiefdom political organizations
Ibn Khaldun synthesized world history in an Islamic view Called "Muqaddimah" Means introduction. Reflections that advance into the area of theory. Said that cities were held together by the differences of each city. Division of labor. Also villages exist by simplicity where people are the same and depend on each other. Cities need villages and villages need cities.Third kind of people. Live in the desert. Bedouins - means desert nomad Despised by everyone - savages
The process of buying a good in one market at a low price and selling it in another market at a higher price
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Quantity Theory of Money
P= MV/Q A theory asserting that the quantity of money available determines the price level and that the growth rate in the quantity of money available determines the inflation rate.
Price Revolution of 16th century
inflation supply gos up, price goes down value of the coin goes down, Caused by the importation of silver and gold into the European economy
A mercantilist strategy for economic growth in which a country restricts imports in order to spur demand for locally produced goods.
Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities.
Persian scientist, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and author. He is often cited as "the father of algebra", which was named after a part of the title of his book, Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala, along with the algorism number system
Famous classical mathematician, wrote a book that summarized Hindu mathematics, discovered pi, calculated the length of the solar system, and the circumference of the earth during India's Classical Era.
Rationalists. believed that human reason is more reliable than tradition.Originated in the 8th century in Basra (Iraq) when Wasil ibn Ata. left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute.
tried to blend Aristotle's and Plato's views with those of Islam- argued that Greek philosophy had the same goal: to find the truth.
muslim mathematician who produced a book called Optics which revolutionized ideas about vision. he showed that people see objects because rays pass from the objects to the eyes, not vice versa
13th century Syrian Arab from Damascus
pioneered sci fi, from Syria; Arab physician who propsed the making of encyclopedia and medical writings and science fiction;
created the first astrolabic clock that helped you tell time from the shadows. was an astronomer-Cairo
treaty of tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
city in Peru that was one of the great mining centers in the sixteenth century New World. The Spanish crown was particularly interested in mining because it received one-fifth of all mining revenues
Source of gold, iron ore, coal (Southwestern Brazil) , The most important of the Portuguese trade forts was this in the heart of the gold-producing region.
"Non-action," "not doing," or "inaction"; the Taoist form of action, meaning to do nothing in such a way that all things are accomplished and the world is brought into subjection to the Tao.
village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting as this is where iron-ore was first smelted by Abraham Darby using easily mined "coking coal" The coal was drawn from "drift mines" in the sides of the valley
(1924-96) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, development of scientific disciplines is discontinuous, and at critical junctures mass changes occurred/paradigm view
Who: Pizarro is a Spanish conquistador born in Trujillo, Spain.
What: Pizarro led the first group of Europeans over the Andes mountains in South America and. On November 15, 1532, Pizarro led a group of 168 men into Cajamarca in Peru. What they saw was an army of 80,000 Inca warriors. On November 16, 1532, Inca leader, Ataxalpa agreed to meet with the Spaniards but decided to unarm all of his warriors for festivities rather than war. In the end, this decision turned out to be Ataxalpa's undoing because the 168 Spaniards led by Pizarro were able to overrun the Inca without one of the Spaniards dying.
When: 15th to 16th Century
Significance: The main significance of Pizarro was that he was able to conquer one of the biggest South American empires of that time, the Incas. His massacre of the 7,000 Incas with just 168 men happened because of geographical advantages and technological advancements over the Incas (according to Jared Diamond). One major advantage was the European horses over the South American llamas. The Spanish horsemen were known throughout Europe for their exceptional maneuverability and speed. Another advantage was the European steel over the South American bronze. The Spanish were able to use guns while the Incas merely had spears and arrows. Yet another advantage was the Spanish writing. Past Spanish battles were recorded and were used at later periods, but the Inca were not able to read or write. Pizarro was able to read about the strategies and experiences of past conquerors and use this knowledge to his advantage.
The Muqaddimah English: Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena is a book written by the Maghrebian Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history. Some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the philosophy of history or the social science of sociology demography, historiography or cultural history. and economics, The Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences of biology and chemistry. Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the preface or first book of his planned world history, the Kitab al-Ibar but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work.