Who: Pizarro is a Spanish conquistador born in Trujillo, Spain.
What: Pizarro led the first group of Europeans over the Andes mountains in South America and. On November 15, 1532, Pizarro led a group of 168 men into Cajamarca in Peru. What they saw was an army of 80,000 Inca warriors. On November 16, 1532, Inca leader, Ataxalpa agreed to meet with the Spaniards but decided to unarm all of his warriors for festivities rather than war. In the end, this decision turned out to be Ataxalpa's undoing because the 168 Spaniards led by Pizarro were able to overrun the Inca without one of the Spaniards dying.
When: 15th to 16th Century
Significance: The main significance of Pizarro was that he was able to conquer one of the biggest South American empires of that time, the Incas. His massacre of the 7,000 Incas with just 168 men happened because of geographical advantages and technological advancements over the Incas (according to Jared Diamond). One major advantage was the European horses over the South American llamas. The Spanish horsemen were known throughout Europe for their exceptional maneuverability and speed. Another advantage was the European steel over the South American bronze. The Spanish were able to use guns while the Incas merely had spears and arrows. Yet another advantage was the Spanish writing. Past Spanish battles were recorded and were used at later periods, but the Inca were not able to read or write. Pizarro was able to read about the strategies and experiences of past conquerors and use this knowledge to his advantage.