16 terms

Piaget and Vygotsky

Assimilation and Accommodation
How children use and adapt their schemas.
Assimilation-use existing schemas to deal with new information.

Accommodation-adjust their schemes to account for new information and experiences.

Sensorimotor Substages 4
Substage 4-coordination of secondary circular reaction. (8-12 months) Simultaneous actions, hand-eye coordination, presence of intentionality.

ex. knocks over blocks to get something behind it.
Sensorimotor substage 5
Tertiary circular reacitons (12-18 months) experiment with objects considering new possibility.

ex. unraveling toilet paper
Sensorimotor substage 6
Internalization of schemes (18-24 months) ability to use primitive symbols.

ex. baby sees matchbox open, starts opening and closing its mouth when box opens and closes
Object Permanence
8 months
-understanding that objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched.

ex. they know when the parent is out of the room so they cry.

-infants search for an object, it is assumed they understand it continues to exist.
A-Not-B Error
Mistake of searching for object in location A (first and familiar location) instead of new location B (second location)
-mistake no longer made after 12 months.

ex. child observation project
Preoperational Stage 1
1 symbolic function substage (2-4 years) ability to mentally represent objects not present.

-egocentrism: inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective.
ex. mountain model

-animism: belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities and are capable of action.

Preoperational Stage 2
2 intuitive thought substage (4-7 years) primitive reasoning and want to know answers to question.

-centration: centering of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of others.

ex. focus on one glass taller than the other

-la ck of conservation: unawareness that altering an object or substances appearance does not change its basic properties.

ex. since one is longer it has more
Concrete operational stage 1
1 classify divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelationships.

ex. family tree
Concrete operational stage 2
Seriation order stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)

ex. straws in order of height
Formal operational stage
(11-15 years old) think in abstract and more logical ways.

ex. they can do without the straws
Piaget and education
-constructivest approach: children learn best when active and seek solutions for themselves
-children's level of thinking: guide by assessing mistakes in thinking
-intellectual health: children's learning should occur naturally
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development
zpd: range of tasks too difficult for the child to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more skilled children

lower limit:level of skill reached by child independenty

upper limit: level of skill reached by assistance
Vygotsky's scaffolding
scaffolding: changing the level of support

-over course of teaching lesson, skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance.

-dialogue is an important tool. offer support and encouragement while watching when its needed.

-build the childs language use with guidance,

-language rich classroom.
-reading time, ask questions, discuss words
Vygotsky's private speech
language used to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior; demonstrate social competence.

-child is talking to themselves. narrating what they are doing.
-in their own world.
Example from each of Piaget's stages (4 terms with definition and example)