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Management Final Chapter 13
Terms in this set (48)
Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a persons level of effort, and a persons level of persistence.
*describes why people behave they way they do in org
Motivation comes from what two sources?
Intrinsic and extrinsic sources
Intrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior that is performed for its own sake
Extrinsically motivated behavior
Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment
Prosocially motivated behavior
Behavior that is performed to benefit or help others
anything a person gets from a job or organization
anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization
The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort leads to high performance and high performance leads to attainment of desired outcomes.
Expectancy theory's three major factors that determine a person's motivation?
In the expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance.
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes
In expectancy theory, how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person.
What occurs in expectancy theory
High motivation results from high levels of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
a requirement or necessity for survival and well being
theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
An arrangement of five basic needs that motivate behavior. He proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time
Maslow's five basic needs?
1) physiological needs
2) safety needs
3) belongingness needs
4) esteem needs
5) self-actualization needs
*basic needs must be met before other needs are pursued
Alderfer's ERG theory
The theory that three universal needs, for existence, relatedness, and growth, constitute a hierarchy of needs and motivate behavior. He proposed that needs at more than one level can be motivational at the same time
Herzberg's motivator hygiene theory
A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs and hygiene needs and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high
Need for achievement
The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.
EX. sense of accomplishment, interesting work, responsibilty
Ex. working condiotns, pay, security, good relationships
need for affiliation
the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaing good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him or her get along with each other
need for power
the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
A theory of motivation that focuses on peoples perception of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs
the justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled
lack of fairness
the inequality that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome- input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent
the inequity that exists when a person percieves that his or her own outcome-input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent
goal setting theory
a theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects
theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals.
a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience
operant conditioning theory
the theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences
*people will be motivated to perform at high level and attain work goals as long as it allows them to attain wanted desires
giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors
eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors
curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them
administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs
Organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)
the systematic application of operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance of organizationally functional behaviors and to discourage the performance of dysfunctional behaviors
social learning theory
a theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people's behavior.
learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person performing it and being reinforced for doing so: also called observational learning
any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to himself or herself for good performance
a person's belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully
How pay motivates in expectancy theory
pay has high valence for people. the associate between performance and outcomes (pay) must be high for motivation to be high
How pay motivates in need theory
People should be able to satisfy their needs by performing at a high level; pay can be used to satisfy several different kinds of needs
how pay motivates in equity theory
outcomes should be distributed in proportion to inputs
how pay motivates in goal setting theory
outcomes such as pay should be linked to attainment of goals
how pay motivates in learning theory
pay should be contingent upon the performance of organizationally functional behaviors
employee stock option
a financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organizations stock at a certain period or under certain conditions
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