Psych Study Guide
Terms in this set (63)
Pointed out that we all have a tendency to want to explain human behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error; college students rate questioners as more intelligent
Electric shock; teacher, student; argued it was situational cues (prestigious setting, and authority of the experimenter)
Conformity to groups when the number of members is larger
Game Show host seen as more intelligent (FAE
Markus and Kitayama
Westerners see themselves as independent agents and focus on the individual not contextual
Morris and Peng
Mass murder story; Chinese = situational and America = dispositional
Miller and Ross
Equate successes to internal and failures to external
Lau and Russel
Professional athletes = 80% of their wins to internal factors and losses to external
Relate to either internal or external to help self-esteem
Tafel and Turner
That part of the individual's self-concept which derives from their knowledge of membership of a social group, together with the value and emotional significance of that membership"
The rioting was a result of the local population reasserting their social identity when it was threatened by the action of the police
Kashima and Triandis
When asked to explain their performance the American tended to attribute their success in remembering accurate details to ability, whilst the Japanese in contrast, tended to attribute their failures to lack of ability
Hogg and Vaughn
Assumptions about personalities, behavior and attitudes are based on group members
Stereotypes originate from two major sources a person experience with another person or group patterns a behavior and the communication of the experience with other people
Hamilton and Gifford
Argued that stereotypes form because of our tendency to see a relationship between two variables (even if it isn't there
Ford and Stangor
Traits that most objectively distinguish two target groups were most likely to emerge central to a set stereotypical beliefs about groups
Wagner and Vallacher
People over estimate association between negative characteristics and minority group members
Aronson and Steele
African American and White college students take test in threatening and non threatening position people will behave differently if they inadvertently confirm a stereotype, even if they don't believe it. Students worry that their future may be compromised by society's perception and treatment of their group so they do not focus their full attention on the test questions.
Shih. Pittinsky, Ambady (1999)
Asian women were subtly reminded (with a questionnaire) of either their Asian identity or their female identity prior to taking a difficult math test. Results showed that women reminded of their Asian identity performed better than the control group and women reminded of their female identity performed worse than the control group
The children in the non-aggressive group showed almost no aggression and those who watched the aggressive models imitated their behavior and were aggressive
Children in the reward and control conditions imitated more of aggressive actions of the model than did the children in the punishment condition. The children in model punished group had clearly learnt the aggression by observational learning but did not imitate it because they expected negative consequences
called residents in Indiana (USA) and asked them if, hypothetically, they would volunteer to spend 3 hours collecting for the American Cancer Society. Of those responding to the earlier request, 31% agreed to help. This is much higher than the 4% of a similar group of people who volunteered to help when approached directly.
hypothesized that people sometimes infer their inner states ( such as attitudes and emotions) from their behavior and the situation in which the behavior occurred
asked students whether they would participate in a psychology experiment that started at 7 am and most pps refused (control group). In an experimental condition Cialdini asked pps whether they would participate in an psychology experiment, and even though they weren't told a time most pps agreed Later they were told that it started at 7 am and given the chance to drop out if they wanted. On the day of the experiment 95% turned up as promised for the 7am appointment
hypothesized that people want their attitudes and behaviors to be consistent with each other. If there is a conflict (dissonance) between the two an uncomfortable state may occur. In order to reduce the inner tension, we feel we may do one of three things - change the belief, change the action or change the perception of the action
Estimates on the movement of the light in the group converged as they established a 'group norm' and they were asked to give individual estimates after the group and they were close to the group estimates
Hogg and Vaughn
Suggest that studies by several investigators have identified several dispositional characteristics associated with increased conformity
Brown and Byme
Suggest that people might suspect collusion if the majority rises beyond 3 or 4
Allen and Levine
Replicated the Asch experiment and introduced a dissenting confederate wearing thick rimmed glasses thus suggesting he was slightly visually impaired. Even with this seemingly incompetent dissenter conformity dropped from 97% to 64%. Clearly the presence of an ally decreases conformity.
Williams and Sogon
found significantly higher levels of conformity among Japanese groups who already knew one another than among groups lacking pre-acquaintance
conducted three replications of the Asch experiment and interpreted the different levels of conformity as reflecting socio-political changes in American society.
Perrin and Spenser
carried out an exact replication of the original Asch experiment using engineering, mathematics and chemistry students as subjects.
"a dynamic system of rules, explicit and implicit, established by groups in order to ensure their survival, involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and behaviors"
warns against using culture as an explanation for behavior. Instead descriptions of cultural factors may lead to specific kinds of behavior and it is better to look at these.
( between 1967 and 1973 ) asked over 100,000 employees in 50 countries of the multinational company IBM to fill in surveys about morale in the workplace. He then carried out a content analysis and found that over half of the variance between countries was accounted for by five dimensions.
Smith and Bond
found support for this when they conducted a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies across 17 different countries. The meta-analysis showed that more conformity was obtained in collectivistic countries like the Fiji Islands, Hong Kong and Brazil than in individualistic countries like the USA, the UK or France.
In eastern countries, characterized by a long-time orientation, patience is valued more than in Western countries. Chen et al. found that US-primed participants valued immediate consumption more than the Singaporean- primed participants.
Triandis et al
found that under some circumstances people may exhibit collectivist cultural traits whilst another time exhibit more individualist cultural traits. For example whilst individualism is the most dominant cultural value in American society at times Americans can exhibit collectivist values, such as was demonstrated after the 9/11 attacks
Mead argued that gender roles are culturally determined rather than biologically determined by innate sex differences as believed in the West, noting that behavior regarded as masculine in one culture could be considered feminine in another. To describe the Arapesh people as 'feminine' attaches a western construct to a set of behaviors which may be unique to the Arapesh people
Broca 1861 Case study of 'Tan'
The only articulate sound he could make was the syllable "tan", which had come to be used as his name.
Patients who had a lesion in the posterior portion of the left temporal lobe could produce speech but it often lacked meaning.
Studies of learning and memory in a sea slug, Aplysia, therefore have resulted in a model of learning and memory that seems to be broadly applicable to all animals.
Martinez and Kesner 1999
Rats were trained to go through a maze, where they received food at the end
conducted a study at the university of Zurich in which adult couples were randomly assigned into two groups: one group of participants were administered oxytocin intra-nasally and the other group received placebo, also in a nasal spray.
Jacob et al 2007
Two related studies in adults, in 2003 and 2007, found that oxytocin decreased repetitive behaviors and improved interpretation of emotions
More recently, intranasal administration of oxytocin was found to increase emotion recognition in children as young as 12 who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders
Schacter and Singer 1962
They gave 3 groups of participants an adrenaline injection (epinephrine) and 1 group a placebo, and then put them into situations designed to create an emotional response of anger or happiness.
who hypothesized that memories are stored in the brain in the form of networks of neurons. When presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons fire action potentials together the strength of the synaptic connections between them are enhanced
Eric Kandel 2000
investigated biochemical changes in neurons associated with learning and memory storage
Hubel and Weisel 1970
demonstrated that depriving newborn kittens of normal visual experience by suturing one eye closed for 8 weeks resulted in a lack of normal connections between the eye and the visual cortex - and caused blindness even after the eye had been reopened.
Rosenzweig and Benett 1972
conducted an experiment to measure the effect of either enrichment or deprivation on the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex
Rizolatti, Gallese and Fogassi 1996
During a study of neuron dynamics electrodes had been put into a few individual neurons in a macaque monkey's premotor cortex to monitor neural activity as the monkey reached for different objects.
was the first theorist to bring together the two elements of physiological arousal and cognition
argued that an emotion-provoking stimulus triggers a cognitive appraisal, which is followed by the emotion and the physiological arousal
He showed college students a film called 'Sub-incision', a graphic film about an initiation ceremony involving unpleasant genital surgery. The aim was see if the people's emotional reactions could be manipulated
Raine et al 1997
used PET scans in identifying reduced neural activity in certain parts of the brains ( corpus callosum, amygdala, hippocampus) of people charged with murder but pleading not guilty for reasons of insanity.
Berns et al 2005
used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure what happens inside the brain when people either conform to a group's judgment, or go against it
Grove et al 1990
studied 32 sets of MZ twins who were separated and raised apart shortly after birth
conducted a study with a large Dutch family, who had a long history ( over five generations ) of anti-social behavior. Over the course of four years Brunner and his colleagues analyzed the X chromosomes of 28 members of the Dutch family
argued that individuals, especially children, are not born with aggressive tendencies but learn aggressive behaviors from observing others, either personally or through the media and environment.
Caspi and Moffitt 2002
have argued that aggression is in fact an interaction of genes and the environment.